ASHER OVADIAH Departments of Art History and Classics Tel-Aviv University GE Ο METRIC AND FLORAL PATTERNS IN ANCIENT MOSAICS Α Study of their Origin in the Mosaics from the Classical Period to the Age

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ASHER OVADIAH Departments of Art History and Classics Tel-Aviv University GE Ο METRIC AND FLORAL PATTERNS IN ANCIENT MOSAICS Α Study of their Origin in the Mosaics from the Classical Period to the Age of Augustus «L'ERMA» di BRETSCHNEIDER - ROMA Ι 980 This work was supported by THE ISRAEL COMMISSION FOR BASIC RESEARCH The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 1980 by «L'ERMA» di BRETSCHNEIDER - Roma - Via Cassiodoro, 19 In memory ofmy father Hair Ovadiah CONTENTS page Acknowledgments 9 Abbreviations and Bibliography Introduction 1 7 List of Patterns 21 Chapter Ι : Mosaic Patterns according to their Provenance 27 Chapter II : The Origin and Development of Mosaics up to the Time of Augustus 65 Chapter III: The Function of Geometric and Floral Patterns in the Decorated Mosaic Pavements 77 Chapter IV: Comparison with Patterns from other Arts 83 Chapter 1 : Summary and Conclusion Ι 87 List of Plates 201 Plates 207 Ι Ι ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study owes its particular debt to all who helped me in its preparation and compilation. First and foτemοst, Ι would like to mention my teacher, the late Professor Michael All-VONAH of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, whose encouragement was very stimulative and valuable. Ι am extremely grateful to Dr. Milka CASSUTO-SALZMANN, the former Director of the library of the Department of Antiquities and Museums, Jerusalem, and to Miss Wanda AFTERGOOD, the present Director of the same library, for their assistance in various bibliographical problems. Ι am appreciative of the help offered to me by the Tel-Aviv University Authorities; my profound gratitude is due to Professor Hair SHAKED, Dean of the Faculty of Humanities, to Professor Shalom PERLIAN, Head of the Department of Classical Studies, to Professor Moshe LAZAR, the former Dean of the Faculty of Fine Arts, and to Professor Hertzel SHEMUELI, the present Dean of the same Faculty. Ι am grateful to The Israel Commission for Basic Research The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities for its support. Ι was aided to a great extent by various libraries in Jerusalem: the library of the Department of Antiquities and Museums, the National University Library, the library of cοle Biblique et Archeologique Franaise de Jerusalem, the library of the American School of Oriental Research (Aibright Institute), and the library of the Tel-Aviv University. Ι am indebted to Dr. Roberto MARCUCCI of L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER S.p.A., Rome, for his kindness and efforts in publishing the manuscript. Finally, Ι can never express sufficient gratitude and appreciation to my wife, Ruth, for her assistance and encouragement along the way. Tel-Aviv University Ramat-Aviv December ist, 1977 Asher Ovadiah Abbreviations and Bibliography ΑΑ ΑΒ ABSA AD ΑΕρ. ΑΙΕΜΑ AJ AJA ΑΜ Αrch οιοgischer Anzeiger. The Art Bulletin. A Quarterly Published by the College Art Association of America. The Annual of the British School at Athens. Archaiologike Deltion (' Αρχαιoλoyικόν ελτιoν) Archaoiologike Ephemeris (' Αρχαιoλοyικ) 'Εηµερι) Bulletin de l'association Internationale pour l't υde de la Mosaique Antique. The Antiquaries Journal American Journal of Archaeology Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts; Athenische Abteilung. Andrae, CCA W. Andrae, Coloured Ceramics from Ashur, London Anson, 1G L. Anson, lumismata Graeca, Parts Ι-ΝΙ (Text and Plates), London Anthony E.W. Anthony, A History of Mosaics, Boston 1935 (New-York 1968), pp AR Archaeological Reports. Archaeology. Arias-Hirmer ASAA Athenaeus Baumeister, DKA BCH BCIA P.E.Arias and M. Hirmer, A History of Greek Nase Painting, London Annuario della Regia Scuola Archeologica di Atene. Athenaei Naucratita e Dipnosophistarum, Libri XN, rec. G. Kaibel, Nol. Ι, Lipsiae 1887 (1923); Vol. II, Lipsiae 1886 (1923); Vol. III, Lipsiae 1890 (1925). A. Baumeister, Denkmäler des Klassischen Altertums. Vol. II, Ilinchen & Leipzig 1887, pp , s.v. Mosaik . Bulletin de Correspondance Ηellnique. Bulletin de la Commission ImpYriale ArchYologique. Blanchet A. Blanchet, La Mosaique, Paris ΒΜ British Museum, A Guide to the Principal Coins of the Greeks (Based on the Work of B.N. Head), London 1965. Ι 2 GEOMETRIC AND FLORAL PATAERNS IN ANCIENT MOSAICS BIO The British Museum Quarterly Boardman, GA J. Boardman, Greek Art, London 1964: Bossert, Ak. Η. Th. Bossert, ΑΙtkreta2, Berlin Bossert, Or. Η. Th. Bossert, Ornament, London Brown, PPM B.R. Brown, Ptolemaic Paintings and Mosaics and the Alexandrian Style, Cambridge (Mass.) Bruneau Ph. Bruneau, DYlos - Les Mosaiques, Vol. XXIX, Paris BS BSAA Bull. d. Cοmité Balkan Studies. Bulletin de la S οciό tό ArchYologique d'alexandrie. Bulletin Αrchό οlοgiqυe du Comitd des Travaux Historiques. Chantre, MC Ε. Chantre, Mission en Cappadoce, , Paris Christie Clarke & alu, IA A.H. Christie, Traditional Methods of Pattern Designing, 2nd ed., Oxford J.T. Clarke, F.M. Bacon, R. Koldewey, Investigations at Assis, Cambridge (Mass.) 1902, (F.H. Bacon, ed.). Cook, GPP R.M. Cook, Greek Painted Pottery, London CSCP DAGR Déchelette, PAF Dchelette, SAF Cornell Studies in Classical Philology: Ch. Daremberg & Ε. Saglio, Dictionnaire des AntiquitYs Greques et Romaines, Vol. I-IX, Paris J. DYchelette, Manuel d'archyologie, Tome II (2me Partie), Premier Age du Fer ou Εροque de Hallstatt, Paris J. Déchelette, Manuel d'archyologie, Time II (3e Partie), Second Age du Fer ou Εροque de la TYne, Paris Desborough, PP V.R. d'a. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery, Oxford Ducati, Arte P. Ducati, L'Arte in Rima dalle Origini al Sec. VIII, Bologna Ει C. Cecchelli & P. Toesca, Enciclopedia Italiana, 1938, s.v. Musaico . Evans, PMK A. Evans, The Palace of Minis at Knossos, Vils. I-IV, London FA Fasti Archeologici, Annual Bulletin of Classical Archaeology, Vois. Ι-XX, Firenze Ι Fenger, DP L. Fenger, Dorische Polychromie, Berlin Fletcher, HA B. Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method, 16th ed., New-York-London Folsom, HGP R.S. Folsom, Handbook of Greek Pottery, London Fouilles de Deiphes Fuhrmann, PliE H. Lacoste, Fouilles de Deiphes, Tome ΙΙ (Planches), Paris 1920 (Ecole Franςaise d'athynes). H. Fuhrmann, Philoxenos von Eretria, Archliologische Untersuchungen Ober zwei Alexander - mosaiks, Göttingen Galenus, Protrept. Claudii Galeni Pergameni, Scripta Minora, Vol. Ι, Lipsiae (Rec. I. Marquardt et alu), πρoτρεπτ ί Κδς 'επ Τέ χνα. ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 Gardiner, ΟΙ. Ε.Ν. Gardiner, Olympia. Its History and Remains, Oxford Gervasio, ΒΑ Μ. Gervasio, Bronzi Arcaichi e Ceramica Geometrica nel Museo di Bari (Vol. 16 in the series Documenti e Monografie of the Commissione Provinciale di Archeologia e Storia Patria), Bari Girard, PA P. Girard, La Peinture Antique, Ι 892. Hinks Hoernes-Menghin Hogarth, ΕΕ R.P. Hinks, Catalogue of the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Paintings and Mosaics in the British Museum, London M. Hoernes und O. Menghin, Urgeschichte der Bildenden Kunst in Europa, 3rd ed., Wien D.G. Hogarth, Excavations at Ephesus, The Archaic Artemisia, Text and Atlas (2 Vols.), London Holland, Fai. L.A. Holland, The Faliscans in Prehistoric Times, Rome Ι 925. Houston, AEMPC Μ.Ο. Houston, Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Persian Costume and Decoration, 2nd ed., London Houston, AGRBC Μ.G. Houston, Ancient Greek, Roman -and Byzantine Costume and Decoration, 2nd ed., London IEJ Israel Exploration Journal. ILl Illustrated London News. Jacobsthai, 0G' Π. Jacobsthai, Ornamente Griechischer Vasen, 2 Vols. (Text and Plates), Berlin Jacoby, FGH JAOS JDAI JHs JOAI F.Jacoby, Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, lois. 1-11, Berlin Journal of the American Orientai Society. Jahrbuch des (Kaiserlich) Deutschen Archaoiogischen Instituts. The Journal of }{ellenic Studies. Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Αrcho1ogischen Institutes. Jones, GO O. Jones, The Grammar of Ornament, London JRAS JRS KB Koch, DC The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. The Journal of Roman Studies. Kunstgeschichte in Bildern, Nos. 2-4, Leipzig n.d. H. Koch, Dachterrakotten aus Campanien, Berlin 1912 (= Studien zu den Campanischen Dachterrakotten , RI, Vol. XXX, Ι 9 1 5, pp ). Koldewey, Bab. R. Koldewey, The Excavations at Babylon, London Ι 914. Koldewey, WEB R. Koldewey, Das Wieder Erstehende Babylon, Leipzig Lawrence, GA A.W. Lawrence, Greek Architecture, London LIN A.H. Layard, The Monuments of Nineveh, II, London Loftus, TRCS MA MAAR W.K. Loftus, Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and Susiana, New- York Monumenti Antichi Pubb. per Cura della R. Accad. dei Lincei. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Ι 4 GEOMETRIC AND FLORAL PAAAERNS IN ANCIENT MOSAICS Mayer, Αρ. Μ. Mayer, Apulien, Leipzig und Berlin MGR Mi La Μοsaq υe GrYco-Romaine (Paris, 29 Ao ϋ t - 3 Septembre 1963), Paris The Museum Journal. MJK Marburger Jahrbuch fϋ r Kunstwissenschaft.. MIA Mon. Piot Montelius, AK Mozia-Ill Murray, TS ΙDS Mosaico e Mosaicisti ne Ιl'Αntichit, Estratto dalla Enciclopedia dell'arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Roma 1967 (= D. Levi, Enciclopedia dell'arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Vol. V, Roma 1963, pp. 209 ff., s.v. Mosaico ). Monuments et MYmoires publiys par l'acadymie des Inscriptions: Fondation Εugne Put. O.Montelius, Die Älteren Kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, Stockholm Isabella Brancoli et alu, Mozia ΙΙΙ, Rapporto preliminare della campagna di scavi 1966, Studi Semitici, 24, Roma Α.S. Murray, Terracotta Sarcophagi, Greek and Etruscan in the British Museum, London Notizie degli Scavi di Αntichit. leapolis. L'Orange & Nordhagen H.P. L'Orange und P.J. Nordhagen, Mosaik von der Antike zumlittel - alter, Miinchen Pallottino, EP M. Pallottino, Etruscan Painting, Geneva Ι 952 (Skira). Parlasca K. Parlasca, Die Rό mischen Mosaiken in Deutschland, Berlin Payne, Nec. H. Payne, lecrocorinthia, Oxford Pernice, FF1 Perrot et Chipiez Die Hellenistische Kunst in Pompeii: E. Pernice, Pavimente und Figϋ rliche Mosaiken, Berlin G. Perrot et C. Chipiez, Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquite, Vols. Ι-Χ, Paris Petrie, Defern'ieh (in Tanis, ΙΙ) W. Μ. Flinders Petrie and F.Ll. Griffith, Tanis, Part 11, London Petrie, DP W.Μ. Flinders Petrie, Decorative Patterns of the Ancient World,London Petrie, laukratis, Ι W.M. Flinders Petrie et alu, laukratis, Part Ι, , London Pfuhl, E. Pfuhl, Malerei und Zeichnung der Griechen, Vols , Munich 1923 (Vol. ΙΙΙ re-ed. by K. Schefold, 1940). Pfuhl, MGDP E. Pfuhl, Masterpieces of Greek Drawing and Painting, London 1955 (= Meisterwerke Griechischer Zeichnung und Malerei, Μϋ nchen 1924). PG PGr. Photius, Bibi. Plinius, NH W.M. Flinders Petrie, Gerar, London n.d. Patrologiae Graecae. Photius, Myriobiblon sue Bibliotheca, Vol. III (ed. J.P. Migne, PGr., Vol. 103, Paris 1900, 149b [cols ]). Plinius, laturalis Historiae (The Lieb Classical Library, Vols. Ι-Χ, Lofdon-Cambridge [Mass.] ). Plutarch ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Ι 5 Plutarch's Lives (The Lieb Classical Library, Vol. 1, Cambridge [Mass.]- Lindon 1955). Poulsen, ETP F. Poulsen, Etruscan Tomb Paintings, Oxford Powers, Η.Η. Η.Η. Powers, The Art of Mosaic, Πρακτικό Πρακτικό τή ν 'Α ή ναι 'Αρχαιολογική ς 'Εταιρε ί ας. QDAP RA RE The Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine. Revue Αrch οlogique. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopadie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Reinach, RPGR S. Reinach, RYpertoire de Peintures Greques et Romaines, Paris Reinach, RVPGE S. Reinach, RYpertoire des Vases Peints Grecs et Etrusques, 2 Vols., Paris Richter, ΑσΑ G.M.A. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, New-York-Oxford Richter, HGA G.M.A. Richter, A Handbook of Greek Art, London Rizzo G.R. Rizzo, La Pittura ellenistico -romana, Milan Ι 929. RI Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archliologischen Instituts: Römische Abteilung. R.-Maclver, Et. D. Randall-Maclver, The Etruscans, Oxford R.-Iaclver, laι D. Randall-Macher, The Iron Age in Italy, Oxford R.-Maclver, lee D. Randall-Maclver, Villanovans and Early Etruscans, Oxford Robertson, GP Robertson, GRA C.Μ. Robertson, Greek Painting, Geneva 1959 (Skira). D.S. Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture, 2nd ed., Cambridge Robinson, Olynthus II D.M. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus, Part ΙΙ, Baltimore Ι 930. Robinson, Olynthus V D.M. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus, Part V, Baltimore Robinson, Olynthus VIII D.Μ. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus, Part VIII, Baltimore Robinson, Olynthus XII D.M. Robinson, Excavations at Olynthus, Part XII, Baltimore Roes Rostovtzeff, SEHI-IW Rumpf, ΙΖ Sarre, ΚΑΡ Schmidt Anna Roes, Greek Geometric Art, Its Symbolism and Its Origin, Haarlem-Oxford-London M. Rostovtzeff, Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World, 3 VoIs., Oxford Α. Rumpf, Malerei und Zeichnung, Handbuch der ArchEologie VI: Part 6, Vol. IV (1), Ilinchen F. Sarre, Die Kunst des Alten Persien, Berlin E.F. Schmidt, Persepolis Ι (The University of Chicago Oriental Ι stitute, Publications, Vol. LXVIII,), Chicago, Illinois SHIF F. Sarre und E. Herzfeld, Iranische Felsreliefs, Berlin 1910., SIA Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology., Speltz,, Α. Speltz, L'Ornement polychrome, I, L'AntiquitY, Leipzig 1915. Ι ό GEOMETRIC AND FLORAL PATTERNS IN ANCIENT MOSAICS Speitz, 0m. Swindler, ΑΡ UPIB Van Buren, Archaic Fic.Rev. Van Buren, Fig. Terrac. Rev. Van Buren, Gr.Fic.Rev. Ward, SC Weege, ΕΜ Wiegand, APEA Xenophon Yadin Yediot Α. Speltz, Der Ornamentstil, Leipzig 1912, pp. 1-77; Pls Μ.Η. Swindler, Ancient Painting, New Haven - London - Oxford Bulletin University Museum, Philadelphia. Ε. Douglas Van Buren, Archaic Fictile Revetments in Sicily and Magna Graecia, London Ε. Douglas Van Buren, Figurative Terra-cotta Revetments in Etruria and Latium, London Ε. Douglas Van Buren, Greek Fictile Revetments in the Archaic Period, London W.H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders ofwestem Asia, Washington, D.C. Ι 910. F. Weege, Etruskische Malerei, Halle Th. Wiegand, Die Archaische Poros-Architektur der Akropolis zu Athen, Cassel & Leipzig Xenophon, Cyropaedia (The Loeb Classical Library, Vol. II, London- New York 1914). Y. Yadin, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands in the Light of Archaeological Discovery, London Ι 963. Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (in Hebrew). INTRODUCTION Three important works dealing with mosaics and to some extent with mosaic patterns were published during the thirties and the fifties of this century. Ι. Blake (1 930) deals with mosaic pavements discovered in Roman buildings of the Republic and Early Empire (Pompeii, Rome, Spoleto and Ρ ramο). She also reviews the most important Classical and Hellenistic mosaics and discusses the origin and the development of the decorative motifs. Hinks (Part ΙΙ, 1933) deals with the collection of mosaics in the British Museum, and discusses the history of the development of mosaic and inlay work, from the earliest times to the Byzantine period, as well as the origin and the development of the decorative motifs appearing in these mosaics. Brown (1957) deals, inter alia, with the Hellenistic (Ptolemaic) mosaics discovered in Thmuis and Shatbi, and compares their patterns with similar patterns appearing in other mosaic pavements, such as Delis, Pergamon, Tarsus, etc. She attempts to analyse the origin and the development of some of the decorative motifs, and also reviews briefly the mosaics of the Classical and Hellenistic periods. These studies laid the foundation for any discussion of geometric and floral patterns in mosaic pavements, although this was not their principal objective, and the treatment of this subject was not comprehensive. Each author deals with the mosaics found in a particular geographical region, and attempts to determine the origin and the development of those patterns which appear in the mosaics included in his study. However, no comprehensive use is made of comparative material and where patterns are compared with examples from other arts and crafts 1, there is a considerable time gap between these and the corresponding mosaic patterns. No study has as yet been published which would have as its main objective the inquiry into the origins of mosaic patterns. The aim of the present thesis is to supply this want. Ι. For the convenience of the reader, no distinction will henceforth be made between the terms «art» and craft», the word «art» being used for both. Ι 8 GEOMETRIC AND FLORAL PAL 'hr's IN ANCIENT MOSAICS The main concern of this work is, therefore, to study the origins of the geometric and floral patterns of mosaic pavements by seeking comparative material from other earlier arts, and to show to what extent they influenced directly mosaicists in the creation of their designs. We have endeavoured to treat the subject in greater detail than has been done hitherto, and to give many more comparative examples, which are chronologically closer to the mosaic pavements.. The following two questions arise: were the geometric and floral mosaic patterns original creations, or were the mosaicists influenced by similar patterns from other arts? Were the patterns established by tradition, or did the artists enjoy creative freedom? The scope of this work does not include the study of the origins and development of the patterns, beginning with the arts of the ancient Orient (Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt and ersia) and up to the appearance of the first mosaic pavements. We also do not intend to deal with the factors that influenced the various arts in the period anteceding the mosaic paverents. This is a wide subject, requiring separate treatment. The method chosen in this work is as follows: Selection of patterns discussed: since it is possible to form an almost infinite variety of combinations of geometric patterns, we shall deal only with the most basic and simple of these patterns 2. The floral patterns show a tendency towards stylization and departure from realism, as seen in the rosettes, palmettes, trailing branches, acanthus-leaves, lotus flower, etc., and it is not always possible to determine the exact botanical definition of the plants appearing in the mosaic. We have selected only such plants as can be identified and named, and in addition, groups of plants which form an ornamental design, such as garlands and «embroidery» pattern. We have not included representations of fruit, such as pomegranates, pears, apples,clusters of grapes, etc. In all, 67 patterns have been selected, of these 55 geometric and 12 floral. The definition of the geometric patterns and their classification into main groups and types, are based on the work of M. Ανi-Υοnah3. Patterns not mentioned in Avi-Yonah's work have been defined and classif ιώ d in accordance with his system. The comparative examples are taken from arts that anteceded mosaic pavements, such as architecture, weaving, metalwork, vase-painting, wall-paintings (in tombs), etc. Material for these comparisons was gathered from illustrations in the works listed in the bibliography, and Cf.: Minks, p. LVII. See: Μ. Au - Vonah, QDAP, Vol. II (1933), pp ; see also: the recent classification of mosaic patterns in Bulletin de l'association Internationale pour l'étude de la Mosaique Antique (= AIEMA), RYpertoire graphique du dό cοr gyometrique dans la mosaique antique, 4e Fascicule, Paris 1973. . INTRODUCTION 19 especially publications of Petrie (DP), Bossert (Or.), Jones (GO) and SρeΙtz4, which deal with decorative patterns from various cultures, arts and periods. d) This study is divided into five chapters: Ι. Mosaic Patterns according to their Provenance: This chapter lists in alphabetical order the sites where mosaic pavements of the Classical and Hellenistic periods up to the time of Augustus were discovered. The following particulars are given in respect of each site: some data on the excavation; technique (pebbles or tesserae) and colours; type of str
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