FINANCING SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES. Leopoldo Cruz and René R. Calado ШИШ» шшшшж - PDF

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FINANCING SECDARY EDUCATI IN TE PILIPPINES Leopoldo Cruz and René R. Calado ШИШ» шшшшж ПЕР research report:. (4 J FINANCING SECDARY EDUCATI IN TE PILIPPINES Leopoldo Cruz ала René R. Calado Financing of

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FINANCING SECDARY EDUCATI IN TE PILIPPINES Leopoldo Cruz and René R. Calado ШИШ» шшшшж ПЕР research report:. (4 J FINANCING SECDARY EDUCATI IN TE PILIPPINES Leopoldo Cruz ала René R. Calado Financing of educational systems specific case studies - 11 INTERNATIAL INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIAL PLAING (established by Unesco) 7-, rue Eugène-Delacroix, Paris Unesco 175 AIMS AND METODOLOGY OF TE EP RESEARC PROJECT FINANCING EDUCATIAL SYSTEMS This research project, launched by the International Institute for Educational Planning early in 170, originated in an enquiry as to the real possibility of the developing countries financing their educational objectives in the course of the United Nations Second Development Decade, bearing in mind the high level of expenditure that has already been reached in most cases, the constant rise in unit costs, and the increasing competition within the state budgets themselves that education will probably encounter in the future from the financing of productive investments, debt servicing, and other predictable expenditures. Viewed in this light, therefore, the research is not strictly limited to the study of financing techniques, but has wider aims : (1) To explore the real weight of probable financial constraints on the development of educational systems up to IO. (2) To study the various financing methods likely to augment ressources, and to define a strategy of educational financing more closely adapted to social and economic realities. (3) To analyse certain alternative solutions (new structures, new technologies, etc.) capable, by reducing costs or improving the efficiency of the teaching process, of leading to a better balance between educational targets and the resources available for them. In addition to these extremely concrete objectives, concerned with the real problems facing educational planners in all countries, the collation of the essential data should provide the basis for the answers to more theoretical questions, affecting, for example, the type of correlation between educational expenditure and the level of development, between the level of expenditure and the method of financing, between the level of unit costs and the development of the educational system, etc. CD With these aims in mind, two types of study are being undertaken: 1. National case studies for the retrospective (16l-70) and prospective (IO or beyond) analysis of the expenditure, financing and costs of educational systems in the widest and most representative possible sample of countries - at least fifteen; these studies should, as already stated, reveal both the magnitude and the nature of the financial constraints to be expected in the general framework of the development of the economy and of the finances of the state, and the level and various alternative forms for the possible development of educational systems. These studies will thus cover the whole field of educational financing, costs, and policies in each country concerned. 2. Specific case studies covering, first, the different possible methods of financing (centralised, decentralised, public, private, etc.) and, especially, original ways of raising supplementary resources, and, secondly, the study of new educational solutions calculated to reduce costs. These studies are being carried out in Member States by the EP in close collaboration with national specialists, either from government departments or from universitiesj in many cases the research is a concerted effort by the IIEP and the country concerned, for the common benefit of both parties and of the international community as a whole. This project will culminate in a synthesis report summing up the findings relating to all the problems posed. The studies themselves are being published as single monographs in the collection Financing educational systems, comprising two series, one of country case studies and one of specific case studies. The financial outlay for the implementation of this ambitious project could not be provided from Unesco's basic grant to the Institute. The IIEP is deeply grateful to the Member States and various organizations who, by their voluntary contributions, have enabled it to launch and pursue this research: in particular to SIDA (Swedish International Development (Ü) Authority), NORAD (Norwegian Agency for International Development), DANIDÂ (Danish International Development Agency), CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency), the Republic of Ireland, and the Ford Foundation. The Institute is also deeply indebted to the Member States and national specialists in various parts of the world who have agreed to co-operate with the EP in carrying out these studies. The publication by the EP of certain studies by outside consultants does not necessarily imply, however, the Institute's agreement with all the opinions expressed in them. (ill) Mr, Jose С* Abarcar, Chief, Research and Evaluation Division, Bureau of Private Schools Mrs. Josefina Serion, Assistant Chief, Secondary Educa-» tion Division, Bureau of Public Schools Mr. Fabian Cruz, Chief, Curriculum Division, Bureau of Private Schools Mr. Pacifico Allarde, Chief, Research and Evaluation Division, Bureau of Private Schools Mra Gaudencio Cajator, Education Executive Assistant, Consultants? Bureau of Vocational Education Mrs. Paz Ferrer Moral, Consultant, Division of Educational Planning, Office of the Secretary Mr* Кjell Nilsson, UNESCO Consultant, Division of Educational Planning, Office of the Secretary Atty. Cipriano So Saga, Administrative Officer VI, Office of the Secretary Grateful acknowledgement is made for the inclusion of the Philippines among the countries selected in the I s IoE e P e research project Secretary of Education and Culture PEPACE The International Institute for Educational Planning in Paris is undertaking a comprehensive study on the strategies of educational financing in countries of differing levels of development with the particular intention of comparing how the problem of matching needs to resources in these countries is being met«, The analyses of these financial strategies when shared with the respective countries may provide insight into the problems of financing in these countries and may help them think or plan out other stra=» tegies for creating additional resources 0 In cooperation with this research project.of.- lie'international Institute for Educational Planning^ the Department of Sducati on rejlea sed Department Memorandum o 13? s e 172 creating the Research Staff composed of the following members! Research Coordinators Mr, Leopoldo Cruz Chief Secondary Education Division, Bureau of Public Schools Assistant Research Coordinators Mr. Rene R Calado Chief of Statistics Section^ Division of Educational Planning Office of the Secretary Members s Miss Ofelia Garovillo Senior Educational Planning Analyst«, Board of National Education Dr o Luciana Pagcaliwagan, Educational Planning Analystj Division of Educational Planning^ Office of the Secretary TABLE 01? СНТЕШ? Page Part I - Introduction The Philippine Educational Systems Ml UVSrVlcW eee*eea»eaoeeeeeeoaeoeeeoeaeea -L The Secondary School System and the Roles OX ÍJGII DU.D* ss, öj'5 и Olli & Ф Ф е JL i The Barrio Part II - The Methods of Financing ow the Public igh Schools Are Financed eeae 2^ ow the Barrio igh Schools are Financed eeeee 30 Financing Education in the Private System of Financing Public Secondary V Ccî/w J-OnS-J» «ЭС-П.1.2 е е \\J Part III - Statistical Data on Enrolment«Expenditures and Costs Statistical bata on И1ПГ-Lilien TJ OQ00!?0 Statistical bata on the itumber of Schools and Teachers 64 ExDendi' The I'lasaya Barrio Development igh School # 6 A Case Study of a Sample of 143 Barrio Д1РД Chapter Page Part V - Conclueions and Recommendations 1.J Л Л OrWarCl JjOOi эеее»е»еэеее Proposed Design for a New Financial System of Philippine Public Schools» 134 а EN DI S A«, The Growth of the Barrio igh Schools 140 B e Rules and Regulations for the Implementation of R*A e ITo. 6054t Otherwise Known as the Barrio igh School Charter oöeöeooqeeo e oooo SOO o 146 C e Education Department Order ïlo«11 s* 173 с э 1б1 Ъ* Glos РАЙТ I Chapter 1 TE PILIPPIC EDUCATIAL SYSTEMS AN OVERVIEW Educational institutions in the Philippines are classified into public and private schools» Public schools are those financed and operated by the national and local governments while private schools are those operated by religious organizations (sectarian schools) and private corporations (proprietary schools) a few of these private proprietory schools are along non-profit lines? most of them are owned Only run by stockholders and organized as profit-making enterprises 0 Both public and private schools offer three levels of schoolings elementary s secondary and collegiate«some children start their pre-school education in public or private kindergarten and nursery schools э Pre=school children's ages range from three to six yearse In the public schools f pre-school education is available in the laboratory schools of the normal schools or teachers colleges Q private kindergarten and nursery schools are found The in different places either by themselves or attached to some colleges or universities«pre-school education is not a requirement for admission to the first grade in the elementary schoolse - 2 - Elementary education ir. the public schools covers six years; four years of primary education and two years of intermediate education«a grade one child in the public schools starts schooling at the ace of seven«in the private schools, elcnentary education cover:, six ye-vrs; there are, however, a few private schools that require three years of intermediate education. This is in consonance with the Elementary 2Sduc--..tion Act of 153 which authorizes the restoration of the seventh grade in the elementary level. This particular provision of the 1 iw has not been implemented in the public schools due to lach of funds There are two types of public secondary schools s the general and the vocational found amone the private schools«these two types ore also Both types of schools require four years of schooling. There are, however, a few public and private special vocational schools which rehire only one year of schooling or less igher or oollerjiate education is offered in the public nornal schools and teachers colleges, in state colleges and universities and in private schools and universities«graduate education is also available in some of these institutions cf higher learning Table 1 shows the number and per cent of enrolment in the public and private schools in the school year 16C 16 in the three levels of education« - 3 - Table 1. ITOTCBER Ail'û FEE CENT OF 1ÎIGLI-ÏÏ2ÎT IN PUBLIC АШ) ÍIVATE SCOOLS AIT TE TREE LEVELS OF EDUCATI, SCOOL YEAR 170=171 Levels of ' É n ~g o~ ~1 ment Per Cent Education ' Public 'Private' Total 'Public 'Private. 1 Total t ' ' ' i» i t» Elementary «6,627,734'341*244*6*б 7В' 5 ' 5 ' 100 t Î f 4 f Secondary «75,473'56» 402 f 1,714,075 e 44 '56 '100 S f t I I S Collegiate f 67,343 f 534A71' 65^534' 10 «0 ' 100 t t i «t i f Sources Enrolment data compiled by the Bureau of Public Schools J Bureau of Vocational Education? Sureau of Private Schools and Board of National Education Table 1 shows that for the school year , 5 per cent of the elementary school population were enrolled in the public schools while 56 per cent of the secondary and 0 per cent of the collegiate were in the private schools«the same trend hold true for all other school years in the past decades The Department of Education The Department of Education controls the educational machinery of the country It provides leadership and direction of educational matters all over the Philippines through offices and bureaus under it, in accordance with the constitutional mandate all educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the State Chart I shows the organization chart of the Department of Education As indicated in the Charte, the -4 - hl-heat offici.-d in the depart r.e:vt i:; the Secretary of Education who ir-i assisted by t,jc Undercecretaries. All those three officials are appointed V the i resident of the Philippines with the consent and approval of the Commission en Appointment of the Congress of the Philippines«Working in close coordination with the Department of Education in the highest policy-making body in education^ the Board of Naticnal Education' Created by Republic Act» o«, II24 as amended by Republic Act No, 437^1 the Board is charged with the function to formulate general education objectives and policies, coordinate the offerings, activities and functions of all educational institutions in the country with the view to carry out the provisions of the constitution and to accomplishing an integrated, sell-rounded nationalistic and democracy-inspired educational system in the Philippines«, The Board is composed of ei^ht members with the Secretary of Education as Chairman«The Department of Education is responsible for the administration sjid supervision of all public schools, and it has ^e^eral regulatory powers over private schools. In practice, however, these powers aid responsibilities have been delegated to the various divisions aid bureaus which make up the Department. The Secretary retains final approval of such matters which involve basic policies which are of significance to the legal responsibilities of the Department. CA2T I ORGANIZATIAL GílAtlT DEPART,-ENT OF!S)ÜCATIGN! ' 3QuRD OF TEXT- ' 300KS i BOARD OF iatlal 2DUCATI SiSCTARY OFFICE OF TE OF EDUCATI UNDERSECRETARY UNDERSnCRTARY FOR AD GN1S7RATI0N FCR GENERAL Г],; SECTARY Of EDUUiTlC» CAIRMAN SPECIAL EDUCATI fet^iliza- {Tlw FUND kd-cnistril fclob OPFlC : INSTITUTE OF PANIS GUAGE AND ÎULTURE TECiffilCAI ADVISORY STAFF DIVISI OF EDUCA TIAL PLAING ADtfflilS. TRATIVE OFFICE STATE SCOLAR. SIPS COUNCIL BOARD OF MEDICAL EDXATKA Í BOARDS Cf STATE COLL'DGES St UNI VER j= SI TIES _ -Л. NATIAL ISTJftlCAL COrMLSSE ' BUREAU Cf PUBLIC SCOOLS] NATIAL LIi^RARY 3UREAU 01 PRIVATE SCOOLS NATIAL»4USEUM 3UREAU OF focatiqnal SDUCATI INSTITUTE OF NATIAL ÎA1GUAGE _ PROVIN CIAL DIVI SIS CITY DIVI SIS TCGIUiwJ NOR.'iALf SCOOIS REGIAL OFFICES SCOOLS OF ARTS & TRADE I AGRI CULTURA], SCOOLS FISERY SCOOLS Legend: Prepared by: DlVIfllOU OF EDUCATIAL Department of Education February, 171 Administrative relationship Consultative РЬШШЮ ей» j tea Of the bureaus rsit offices under the Dep-'.-xt^ont of Education those that are most concerned with the educational system of the country arc the bureau of Public choc-is, the bureau of Vocational ducation, and the Bure.au of Private schools. These are the three bureauл which traíllate into operational tenas the educational policies and guidelines fcruiulated by the Board of national education and the Office of the Secretary of Education^. The other offices are the Institute of National Lan^ua^e, the rational Museum, the national Library and the Philippine istorical Commission,, The n Bureau of^ Public^Schools The Director directs and controls the public schools system in the country er.cludin^ vocational schools The Director is assisted by two Assistant Directors«* These three officials are appointed by the President of the Philippines and their appointments have to he confirmed Ъу the Commission on Appointment s The General Office staff consists of the promotional staff and the administrativo stuff. ' il he former is under the direct supervision of the Insistant Director, while the latter is under the Administrative Officer v:ho Í3 appointed hy the Secretary of Education upon the recommendation of the Director«. The promotional staff is composed of the officials in the Adult and Community education Division, Secondary éducation Division f Elementary 'uducation Division, ome Economics Division, ome Industries Division, Special Subjec - 6 - and Services Division, School ealth Division, Research, Evaluation and Guidance Division, Publications and Documentation Division, Sducational Broadcastin~ and Audio- Visual Division, and Teacher Education Unit«The administrative staff includes personnel of the Account in:-; Division, Records Division, School Fiant Division, Investigation and Legal Division, Personnel Division, Property Division, and School Finance Division, All of these staff members of the General Office help formulate the policies of the Bureau, proper instructional and supervisory materials for the use and guidance of the field, and perform other tasks concerning improvement of instruction in the different levels of the educational system* The Bureau of Public Schools lias control over school divisions located all ever the country«. They are the provincial divisions, city divisions, and regional teachers' colleges«, Each division is headed by a school superintendent and consists of divisions supervisory and administrative staff and elementary and secondary school principals and teachers and other school officials who are directly concerned with instructional, administrative, and supervisory matters. Collectively, they form what is called the Field Staff. The Burcan f Vocational Education The Bureau of Vocational Lklucation is headed by a Director with two As s ist ел t Directors, one of whom tnhes care of educational affairs and field supervision and the other takes charge of administrative services«, - 7 - The îeneral Cffice of the Bureau of Vocational ÏÏducation uhich is located in Manila consiste of six functional divisions; the Trade-Technical an! Industrial l'éducation Division» the AgriculturalïïiucationDivision, the Fishery Education Division, the Teacher education and Related Subjects Division, the Research and Evaluation Division and the Medical, Dental and ealth isdueation Divisionj the Accounting Division, Property and School Plant Division, the Legal and Investigation Division, the Personnel Division, the Dud/jet and Finance Division and the Information and Publications Division. The promotional and administrative divisions are further subdivided into sections and units in order to assume specific functions and responsibilities with the end in viev? of rendering efficient service in promoting and enhancing vocational education in the Philippines. The Sureau of Vocational Education has under its control and direction the public vocational schools and colleges in the country. Generally, a public vocational nchool is headed by a vocational school superintendent. Due to the proliferation of vocational schools'during the last decade, r.ia-'^y vocational schools cannot afford to have a superintendent to head thorn. Furthermore, many vocational schools are too s-.r.all to justify the existence of a field superintendent in such a school Generally, a field superintendent has under his administrative and supervisory jurisdiction several sisal 1er vocational schools in the region besides his с\гл resident school. - - As can be net iced in thiu set-up, -the 'urcai of Vocational Jducatioi: is hi;;hly cent relis cd. ЛИ field superintendents and officialü-in-char/;e of voc ticnal schools are directly responsible to the Directorate through the leadership, guidance and supervision of the promotional and administrative divisions in the General Office., The Bureau of Private Schools The Bureau of Private Schools, in its present set-up, is headed by a Director who р1апз, directs and coordinates activities relating to the establishment, administration and supervision of private schools, colleges, and universities«, To assist him are an Assistant Director, an Executive Assistant and officials in the Instruction and Curriculum Division, Legal Division, Ferrnit and Recognition Section, and the Division of ^valuation, Research and Statistics«, llore specifically, these officia
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