Financial Development and Employment Evidence from Transition Countries. Dorothea Schäfer (DIW Berlin), Susan Steiner (LUH) - PDF

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Financial Development and Employment Evidence from Transition Countries Dorothea Schäfer (DIW Berlin), Susan Steiner (LUH) What is financial development? Source: Financial Development Report 2012, World

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Financial Development and Employment Evidence from Transition Countries Dorothea Schäfer (DIW Berlin), Susan Steiner (LUH) What is financial development? Source: Financial Development Report 2012, World Economic Forum. Seite 2 Motivation A large body of literature has shown that financial development is associated with higher output growth BUT global financial crisis starting in 2007/08 Serious recession in many countries Massive job destruction Sharp drop in bank lending Renewed interest in the economic effects of financial development, especially effects on employment Seite 3 Research question 1. Do firms in countries with a higher level of financial development experience more employment growth than firms in countries with a lower level of financial development? 2. Are different firm types affected differently? Focus on transition countries Seite 4 Transition countries Source: World Bank. Seite 5 Transition countries How would you assess the level of sophistication of financial markets in your country? Source: World Economic Forum, Financial Development Report Seite 6 Previous literature Pagano and Pica (2012, EP): financial development is positively associated with employment growth, but only in non-oecd countries Aterido et al. (2011, EDCC): employment growth increases with better access to finance (measured locally) only for medium-sized and large firms Seite 7 Theoretical model Based on Pagano and Pica (2012): model of incomplete contracts at the industry-level Prediction: Financial development should have a positive effect on employment and wages, particularly in industries that depend more on external finance. We adjust their model to individual firms and introduce managerial capital as an input factor in the production function Seite 8 Theoretical model What is managerial capital? Ability of firm-owners and managers to scale up the firm s output (Bruhn, Karlan, Schoar, 2010, AER). It improves the marginal productivity of other inputs (labour, capital) It affects the amount and type of inputs that a firm acquires Seite 9 Mechanic of the model Financial development increases the debt capacity of firms. So firms are, in principle, able to borrow more from banks. Because of better access to finance firms invest more in both production factors: capital and labour. Mechanic of the model (cont.) The additional demand for labour from all firms pushes the wage level in the labour market. Firms with low managerial capital cannot afford to pay the higher wages. As a consequence those firms with low managerial benefit less from higher development than firms with higher managerial capital. Theoretical model Hypothesis: Firms with low managerial capital react to an increase in financial development with lower employment growth than firms with high managerial capital. All firms have better access to finance with a higher level of financial development and so want to expand their physical investment and thus also employment. This increases the competitive pressure on the labour market. The resulting higher wages overcompensate the initial advantage from increased access to finance for firms with low managerial capital as they can no longer pay these wages. Seite 12 BEEPS data Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) conducted by EBRD and World Bank Objective is to examine the quality of the business environment as determined by a wide range of interactions between firms and the state Five rounds of data collection (1999, 2002, 2005, 2009, 2012) in close to 30 countries Manufacturing and services sectors are covered Questions concern issues of infrastructure and services, sales and supply, competition, innovation, finance, business-government relations, land and permits, and labor We use data from 2005 Financial Deveelopment and Employment Seite 13 BEEPS data: countries covered Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) Czech Republic* Estonia* Hungary* Latvia* Lithuania* Poland* Slovak Republic* Slovenia* South Eastern Europe (SEE) Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria* Croatia* Macedonia Montenegro Romania* Serbia * member state of the European Union Seite 14 BEEPS data: countries covered Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Armenia Moldova Azerbaijan Russia Belarus Tajikistan Georgia Ukraine Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Republic Seite 15 Empirical strategy ln emp ijt emp ijt 1 = α + βtype ijt 1 + δtype ijt 1 findev jt 1 + θx + τz + ε ijt i represents the individual firm, j the country where the firm is located, and t the current time period type is the level of managerial capital of a firm, proxied by firm size findev is the level of financial development of a country X are firm-level controls, Z are country controls OLS estimation Seite 16 Firm size Micro = 2-9 employees Small = employees Medium = employees Large = ,000 employees Employment growth (in percent), by firm size Seite 17 Is firm size a good proxy for managerial capital? Lucas (1978, BellJE): managers have different levels of ability; the distribution of this ability transforms into a corresponding distribution of firm sizes because ability is a limiting factor in production Aterido et al. (2011): small firms are not necessarily more credit constrained than large firms; owners of smaller firms may instead have lower capabilities on average, which keeps them from growing their firms Controlling for age and sector, we argue that it is a good proxy. Seite 18 Financial development 1. Private credit of money deposit banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP (Financial Development and Structure Dataset, World Bank) 2. Share of banks with assets of foreign ownership of at least 50 percent (EBRD Banking Survey) Seite 19 Trend in private credit year All SEE CEE CIS Source: Authors illustration, data from World Bank. Seite 20 Trend in foreign ownership year All SEE CEE CIS Source: Authors illustration, data from EBRD. Seite 21 Control variables Firm-level controls: 1. Invest = (100+percent change in physical investment over last 3 years)/ Government = government owns more than 25% of the firm 3. Foreign = a foreign entity owns more than 25% 4. Exporter = firm sells at least 25% abroad 5. City = firm is located in capital or city larger than 1 mio. 6. Age = age and age squared of the firm 7. Sector = dummies for mining, construction, manufacturing, transport, trade, real estate, hotel and restaurant, and other service sectors Seite 22 Control variables Country-level controls: 1. GDP (million current US$) 2. GDP growth (%) 3. Inflation (%) 4. Employment protection legislation (range from 0 = least restrictions to 6 = most restrictions) Seite 23 Estimation results I Findev = private credit Findev = foreign ownership Investment 0.351*** 0.351*** Government 0.039* 0.040* Foreign 0.079*** 0.080*** Exporter 0.075*** 0.071** City 0.048*** 0.044*** Age *** *** Age squared 0.000*** 0.000*** GDP GDP growth 0.009*** 0.011*** Inflation Employment protection 0.023* 0.041* Seite 24 Estimation results II (ctd.) Findev = private credit Findev = foreign ownership Micro 0.295*** 0.294*** Small 0.180*** 0.182*** Medium 0.088*** 0.089*** Privcred *** - Forshare ** Sector dummies YES YES No. observations 7,400 7,400 R-squared Financing Constraints and Employment Seite 25 Estimation results II (part) Findev = private credit Findev = foreign ownership Micro*privcred *** - Small*privcred *** - Medium*privcred Large*privcred 0.004* - Micro*forshare ** Small*forshare ** Medium*forshare Large*forshare Control variables YES YES Sector dummies YES YES No. observations 7,400 7,400 R-squared Financing Constraints and Employment Seite 26 Interpretation emp ijt is on average 47% (40%) higher for micro firms emp ijt 1 compared with large firms Increase in private credit as a share of GDP by 10 percentage points - emp ijt emp ijt 1 is on average 43% larger for micro compared with large firms Increase in foreign ownership of bank assets by 10 percentage points - emp ijt emp ijt 1 is on average 39% larger for micro compared with large firms Seite 27 Robustness checks Result generally confirmed for: Estimating for sub-regions: South Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Excluding outliers in the dependent variable Estimating for different sectors: manufacturing and service sectors separately Estimating for 2009 BEEPS data Deviations for: Central and Eastern Europe Foreign ownership of bank assets as the FinDev measure Seite 28 Robustness: sub-regions Central Europe Southeastern Europe Commonwealth of Independent States Micro*privcred *** *** Small*privcred ** Medium*privcred ** Large*privcred ** Control variables YES YES YES Sector dummies YES YES YES No. observations 2,844 1,698 2,858 R-squared Financing Constraints and Employment Seite 29 Robustness: sub-regions Central Europe Southeastern Europe Commonwealth of Independent States Micro*forshare * Small*forshare *** Medium*forshare Large*forshare **** Control variables YES YES YES Sector dummies YES YES YES No. observations 2,844 1,698 2,858 R-squared Financing Constraints and Employment Seite 30 Conclusion Our findings are in contrast to Beck et al. (2005, JFin; 2008, JMCB) who propose particular benefits in terms of sales and value added for smaller firms from a more developed financial system in line with Aterido et al. (2011) who find more benefits for larger firms from better access to finance in line with experimental evidence: Karlan and Zinman (2011, Science) show that micro-enterprises with access to credit have a lower number of employees than those without access Financial development may have distributional consequences: there may be some firms which benefit less than others from a higher level of financial development We suggest that those are the ones that do not lack financial capital but managerial capital Seite 31
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