Evaluation of Control System Architecture for a Research Engine. Markus Nybjörk - PDF

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Evaluation of Control System Architecture for a Research Engine Markus Nybjörk Bachelor s thesis Electrical Engineering Vaasa 2013 BACHELOR S THESIS Author: Degree programme: Specialization: Supervisor:

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Evaluation of Control System Architecture for a Research Engine Markus Nybjörk Bachelor s thesis Electrical Engineering Vaasa 2013 BACHELOR S THESIS Author: Degree programme: Specialization: Supervisor: Markus Nybjörk Electrical Engineering, Vaasa Automation Matts Nickull Title: Evaluation of Control System Architecture for a Research Engine 15 April pages 5 appendices Abstract: This Bachelor's thesis has been done for Wärtsilä Finland Oy during the winter The single cylinder engine test team at the engine laboratory Waskiluoto Validation Centre (WVC) has been my commissioner. The thesis work is mainly an evaluation of an existing engine control system for a single cylinder research engine. Moreover, it also describes ways of implementing the control system into a new upcoming test engine. Improvement proposals and plans for an upcoming control system have been made, based on the evaluation of the existing system. The background of this evaluation was that another single cylinder test engine (for smaller cylinder bores) will arrive at WVC at the end of Some research of the existing engine control system was therefore needed before a similar engine control system can be taken into use. The evaluation has been concentrated on the PLC part of the engine control system. Important factors that have been considered during the evaluation and planning of the new control system were the stability of the system, the costs, the overall control system performance, the serviceability, the interface to other external systems, the cable routing and the total cable lengths. The thesis has resulted in a functional plan of the engine control system, with layouts of the main cabinets and a list of what parts to order. Language: English Key words: PLC, single cylinder engine, control system, test cell planning The examination work is available at the electronic library Theseus.fi. EXAMENSARBETE Författare: Utbildningsprogram och ort: Inriktningsalternativ: Handledare: Markus Nybjörk Elektroteknik, Vasa Automation Matts Nickull Titel: Utvärdering av arkitektururen för ett kontrollsystem till en forskningsmotor 15 april sidor 5 bilagor Abstrakt Detta examensarbete har gjorts åt Wärtsilä Finland Oy under vintern Min uppdragsgivare har varit singelcylindertestmotorgruppen, som finns placerad i motorlaboratoriet Waskiluoto Validation Centre (WVC). Examensarbetet är till största del en utredning av ett befintligt motorkontrollssystem för en singelcylindertestmotor. Därtill beskriver det också sätt att implementera ett liknande system på en ny kommande testmotor. Förbättringsförslag och planer för det kommande kontrollsystemet har blivit gjorda, baserade på undersökningen av det befintliga kontrollsystemet. Bakgrunden till denna undersökning var att ännu en singelcylindertestmotor (för mindre cylinderdimensioner) kommer att anlända till WVC i slutet av år En del undersökningar av det befintliga motorkontrollsystemet var därför nödvändiga innan ett liknande system kan tas i bruk. Undersökningen har koncentrerats till PLC-delen av motorns kontrollsystem. Viktiga faktorer som har beaktats i undersökningen och planeringen av det nya systemet är systemets stabilitet, den totala kostnaden, systemets prestanda, servicevänlighet, kommunikation med andra externa system, kabelrutter och totala kabellängder. Examensarbetet har resulterat i en funktionell plan över det kommande automationssystemet, med översiktsbilder av automationsskåpen samt en beställningslista med komponenter som behövs till dem. Språk: engelska Nyckelord: PLC, singelcylindermotor, kontrollsystem, testcell planering Examensarbetet finns tillgängligt i webbiblioteket Theseus.fi. OPINNÄYTETYÖ Tekijä: Koulutusohjelma ja paikkakunta: Suuntautumisvaihtoehto: Ohjaaja: Markus Nybjörk Elektrotekniikka, Vaasa Automaatiotekniikka Matts Nickull Nimike: Arviointi ohjausjärjestelmäarkkitehtuurista tutkimusmoottorille 15 huhtikuu sivut 5 liitteet Tiivistelmä Tämä opinnäytetyö on tehty Wärtsilä Finland Oy:lle talvena Minun toimeksiantajani on ollut yksisylinterisen moottorin testausryhmä moottorilaboratoriossa Waskiluoto Validation Centressä (WVC). Opinnäytetyö on pääosin arvio olemassa olevasta moottoriohjausjärjestelmästä yksisylinteriseen tutkimusmoottoriin. Sen lisäksi, työ kuvailee, miten saada samanlainen ohjausjärjestelmä toimimaan tulevalla tutkimusmoottorilla. Parannusehdotuksia ja suunnitelmia tulevaan ohjausjärjestelmään on tehty tämän tutkimuksen avulla. Opinnäytetyön tausta oli, että uusi yksisylinterinen tutkimusmoottori (pienemmälle sylinterihalkaisijalle) saapuu WVC:lle vuoden 2013 lopussa. Nykyisen moottorin ohjausjärjestelmän analysointi tarvitaan ennen kuin se voidaan jatkokehittää uuteen käyttöön. Tutkimus on keskittynyt PLC-osaan moottoriohjausjärjestelmästä. Tärkeitä asioita uuden järjestelmän suunnittelussa on ollut luotettavuus, kulut, suorituskyky, huoltoystävällisyys, muiden järjestelmien kommunikaatio, kaapelointi ja niiden pituus. Opinnäytetyön tulos on toimiva ratkaisu tuleviin automaatiojärjestelmiin. Sen lisäksi on tehty pääkaavioita automaatiokaapeista sekä tilauslistoja niiden komponenteista. Kieli: englanti Avainsanat: PLC, yksisylinterinen testausmoottori, ohjausjärjestelmä, testisolun suunnittelu Opinnäytetyön on saatavissa verkko-kirjastossa Theseus.fi. Table of Contents Abbreviations Preamble 1 Introduction General Background for the degree thesis Goals General information about the Single Cylinder Engine Charge air system Fuel system Exhaust system Oil conditioning unit Cooling system Automation systems on SCE Mono The PLC system & Morphee Engine control system Fast measurement system The networks of the engine control system Safety system Engine control modes Automation system on small Single Cylinder Engine Pros and cons The new test cell Networks and PLC requirements The PLC system Comparison of the PLC families Result of the comparison Modules of the PLC The new PLC structure Signal amount and remote units Reduction of cable consumption Overcrowding in the cabinets Signals to locate in connection boxes The size and amount of the PLC cabinets Summary of the PLC structure Cable routes... 36 4.7 Cabinet layout The main PLC cabinet BAP The cabinet of the remote unit BAP The connection boxes Other engine control systems Order of the cabinets Results Conclusion List of Sources Appendices Abbreviations AI = Analogue Input AO = Analogue Output CB = Connection Box CCM-20 = Cylinder Control Module 20 CEO = Chief Executive Officer CO = Carbon monoxide CO2 = Carbon dioxide CR = Common Rail DF = Dual Fuel DH water = District Heating water DI = Digital Input DO = Digital Output EGR = Exhaust Gas Recirculation EHVA = Electrical Hydraulic Valve Actuators HFO = Heavy Fuel Oil HMI = Human Machine Interface HT water = High Temperature water I/O = Input/Output LDU-20 = Local Display Unit 20 LFO = Light Fuel Oil LNG = Liquefied Natural Gas MCE = Multi Cylinder Engine NOx = Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) O2 = Oxygen PCB = Printed Circuit Board PI schematic = Piping and Instrumentation schematic PLC = Programmable Logic Controller PTV = Performance, Testing and Validation R&D = Research and Development SCE = Single Cylinder Engine SG = Spark ignited Gas SSV = Stop and Safety Valve THC = Total Unburned Hydrocarbons UPS = Uninterruptible Power Supply WVC = Waskiluoto Validation Centre Preamble I want to take the opportunity and thank all the personnel at the Wärtsilä engine laboratory for the help achieved. I also want to give special thanks to my supervisors Mr. Guy Hägglund and Mr. Staffan Nysand at Wärtsilä and Mr. Matts Nickull at Novia University of Applied Sciences. 4 April 2013 Markus Nybjörk 1 1 Introduction Wärtsilä Oyj Abp is a global engine manufacture company, with the headquarters located in Helsinki. Wärtsilä develops and produces large combustion engines for the marine market and for power plants, and the main product within their product portfolio is 4-stroke medium sized engines. Wärtsilä offers complete power solutions or just parts of engine concepts. Furthermore, Wärtsilä offers services to engine concepts and peripheral equipment according to the costumers needs. [3] Wärtsilä was founded in 1834, when a lumber mill was established in Karelia. Almost 100 years after that in 1938, the engine manufacturing began when Wärtsilä signed a licence agreement with Friedrich Krupp Germania Werft AG in Germany. In 1942 Wärtsilä manufactured their first diesel engine, but not until 1960 did they design their own diesel engine, i.e. the type 14. In 1988 a modern engine laboratory was established in Vaasa, which has later been followed by other engine laboratories around the world. As of today Wärtsilä has approximately employees located in nearly 170 different locations and 70 different countries. The different business areas that Wärtsilä upholds can be seen in Figure 1, where the biggest business area is Services followed by Power Plants and Ship Power, and as of today the CEO of Wärtsilä is Mr Björn Rosengren. [3] [26] [27] Figure 1. Chart of Wärtsilä Corporation [24] 2 The three main business areas within Wärtsilä are supported by several support functions, of which PowerTech can be mentioned. PowerTech works on improvements of the quality and the technology for Wärtsilä engines, parts and concepts. Within PowerTech there are several subdivisions. One of those is called Research & Development and manages the research and the development of new products, technologies and concepts, with a strong focus on innovative solutions for 4-stroke engines. To test and validate the different engine concepts, R&D has a department called Performance, Testing and Validation (PTV). To manage the testing and validating, PTV upholds engine laboratories across Europe, with operations in Spain, Italy and Finland. In the laboratories there are several test engines and test rigs which are run and tested by different engine test teams, of which one test team is the Single Cylinder Engine, for which this thesis work has been done. [28] 1.1 General The thesis work was done during autumn 2012 and finalized at the beginning of The SCE (Single Cylinder Engine) group is located in the engine laboratory Waskiluoto Validation Centre located in Vaasa. At the time of writing the SCE has one engine that they are responsible for, but the planning for another SCE has already started. The single cylinder engine is actually one of the test engines that isn t manufactured to the end customer. Its purpose is instead to develop the combustion system and strengthen the knowledge of engine behaviour in Wärtsilä Corporation. 3 1.2 Background for the degree thesis Because the working procedure with the SCE had proven to be effective (the strengths of a SCE will be explained in chapter 2), Wärtsilä decided to install another SCE in Waskiluoto Validation Centre. This new SCE was planned to arrive during the summer 2013 and would be used to develop the engine portfolio for engines with a bore of 200 mm and possible other bores in the same area in the future. Since the SCE Mono (an already existing SCE used to develop engines with a bore of 260 mm to 400 mm) was the first single cylinder engine installed in Wärtsilä Corporation, it had been noted that improvements could be done in the engine s control system. Some solutions in the control system could have been designed and implemented better than they actually were. To get a better picture of what to change and how to do it an investigation or an evaluation of the control system on SCE Mono had to be done. There was also a suggestion of using a new kind of PLC, but no one really knew if it would be appropriate for the new system. Therefore different PLC system alternatives had to be investigated. Plans of how to install a similar control system on small SCE were also needed. 1.3 Goals The main goal of the thesis was to develop a new automation control system for the new small SCE. This plan had to be based on the control system of the existing SCE Mono, with improvements and solutions for the problems found. To achieve a functional plan, different possibilities should be evaluated. The task also involved defining the number of PLC controllers and the location of them in the new engine control system. When defining the PLCs a few factors needed to be kept in mind, such as the stability of the system, the total costs and the component costs, the overall control system performance, the serviceability, the interface to other external systems, the cable routing and the total cable lengths. To decide which PLC system to use, a comparison between the three different PLC systems currently used by Wärtsilä needed to be done. The comparison should focus 4 on system properties like usability, performance, costs and the impact on the final control system architecture. As result of the thesis work a layout drawing of the PLC cabinet or cabinets should be made. Some kind of drawing or plan of how the cable routes should be done effectively was needed as well. To achieve a functional layout of the cabinet(s), a certain attention to cable routing and component position need to be considered, since the I/O amount in the new system will be large and troubleshooting and expansion possibilities need to be service friendly and easy. Another important aspect to keep in mind was the future expansion of the control system, as the application is a research engine that often evolves with the research projects performed on it. 2 General information about the Single Cylinder Engine The single cylinder concept was introduced in Wärtsilä to get a better knowledge of engine behaviours. The main focus with the SCE is to develop and research the combustion system in Wärtsilä engines. As the name tells, the single cylinder engine has only one cylinder, which means that parameters, such as cylinder bore, stroke length and fuel type, can easily be configured. The SCE was designed and built to have a better flexibility and it more easily enables changes needed for different tests than a MCE (Multi Cylinder Engine) does. Since the rebuilding time between different engine setups can be reduced, more tests per year can be performed. With the SCE different fuels can be used, such as CR (Common Rail), DF (Dual Fuel), SG (Spark ignited Gas), conventional diesel and new concepts. Another advantage with a SCE is the enlarged space around the engine, which means that there is more space for instrumentation and other special measurement, where e.g. laser measurements in the combustion chamber have been performed on the SCE. The SCE also allows a more sufficient way of working, when calculations and simulations can be done first and thereafter implemented into the SCE. If successful results are upheld with the SCE, the models can then be implemented to a MCE. [9] [22] 5 The design of the SCE can be seen in Figure 2, where the engine parts and a mass balancing system are shown. Since SCE has only one cylinder, dealing with vibrations is of major importance, and it is not possible to run the engine without special arrangements. To reduce the vibrations the engine is constructed with the mentioned mass balancing system, whose mission is to eliminate the first and second order mass forces. Also a heavy flywheel helps to reduce the vibrations. The mass balancing system is connected to the crankshaft of the engine and uses its own separated lubricating oil system. Furthermore the engine power system consists of a crankshaft, followed by a connecting rod and a piston. There is also a spacer that can be changed according to the stroke wanted. Inside the spacer a cylinder liner is mounted, and when changing cylinder bores both the liner and the piston need to be changed. E.g. in the SCE Mono the cylinder bore can be changed between 260 mm and 400 mm. On top of these parts the cylinder head with valves is mounted (not shown in the figure). [9] [14] Figure 2. Principal picture of the SCE [9] 6 2.1 Charge air system The SCE is built to be a very flexible research engine. Therefore the charge air system has parameters, such as pressure, humidity and temperature, which can easily be controlled. This setup gives Wärtsilä the opportunity to learn how different parameters and setups affect the engine performance. The charge air system is builtup with compressors, valves, tanks (to obtain a stable pressure), air dryers, heaters, coolers and gauges. An overview of the charge air system can be seen in Figure 3, where charge air is fed to the two pipes to the left of the picture and fed to the engine, as seen to the right of the picture. [10] [22] Figure 3. Picture of the charge air system [10] 2.2 Fuel system At the time of writing the SCE can run on LFO, HFO and LNG fuels. These fuels may be changed for other possible energy solutions in the future. In the engine s fuel system, flows and the weight of the fuels are carefully monitored, which enables the fuel consumption to be calculated. The fuel consumption is later used for engine optimizations, efficiency calculations and comparisons of the engine efficiency between different engine setups. To be able to use the efficiency calculations and compare them against other Wärtsilä engines, the losses due to friction in the balancing system are also taken into account. 7 To the SCE a fuel booster unit is connected, which is used for LFO and HFO fuels. The fuel booster controls the flow and measures the consumption of the fuels, and it also heats the HFO to stay viscous. Since there are two different fuel oils connected to the booster unit, there are separate fuel scales, pipes and heaters for LFO and HFO. From the fuel scales the fuel consumption is measured, which is used when counting the engine efficiency. There is also a safety system connected to the engine, which cuts the fuel flow if an emergency situation is detected. The third choice of fuel is LNG, which is fed to the engine by a gas ramp. The gas ramp controls the pressure of the gas fed to the engine, and it also measures the gas flow, the temperature and the pressure. If gas mode is selected, the gas is fed directly to the air manifold before the inlet valves (while HFO and LFO injection is done directly into the cylinder). The gas is injected into the air manifold, with a 0.5 to 1.5 bars higher pressure than the pressure of the charge air and the gas is thereafter ignited by injecting pilot fuel (diesel) to the gas air mixture. The pilot injection is done directly into the cylinder and an example of the gas injection can be seen in Figure 4. [15] [22] Figure 4. Picture of gas injection and the pilot fuel injection [21] 2.3 Exhaust system The exhaust system is a bit more complex on the SCE than on a regular Wärtsilä engine, due to the lack of a turbocharger. The backpressure, normally obtained by a turbocharger, is simulated by a buffer tank and two parallel valves of different sizes, which allows a better control accuracy. The backpressure can either be controlled to simulate a certain kind of turbocharger(s) or controlled to maintain a specific set point value. If simulating a certain kind of turbocharger the simulation is done with a 8 lot of different parameters in mind, such as air consumption, exhaust temperature, fuel consumption, air receiver temperature and exhaust cooling water flow and temperature. This simulation is done with a Simulink model in the engine bed automation computer Morphee 2. There is also an EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) system available, which enables some of the exhaust gases to be mixed back to the charge air. This contributes to lower emissions and cleaner exhaust gas. After the backpressure system follows the emission measurement system, where e.g. NOx, CO2, CO, O2 and THC are measured. A picture of this exhaust system can be seen i
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