ELETROBRÁS Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras - PDF

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ELETROBRÁS Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras CEPEL - Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Stationary Applications Eduardo T. Serra, DSc. Research Consultant, R&D Directorate IPHE

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ELETROBRÁS Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras CEPEL - Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Stationary Applications Eduardo T. Serra, DSc. Research Consultant, R&D Directorate IPHE International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Rio de Janeiro, March 22-23, 23, 2005 ELETROBRÁS! Established in 1962 to become the federal holding company for electricity generation and transmission;! Eletrobrás Group companies are responsible for the production of 60% of the electricity consumed in Brazil;! Installed capacity 41.8 GW (31 Hydro, 16 Thermal, 2 Nuclear)! Transmission lines ~51,000 km! Participation on electricity distribution through regional utilities in 6 states. ELETROBRÁS! Eletrobrás Group Companies! Generation and Transmission! FURNAS! CHESF! ELETRONORTE! Generation! CGTEE! ELETRONUCLEAR! ITAIPÚ (50%)! Transmission! ELETROSUL! Distribution! CEAL! CEAM/Manaus Energia! CEPISA! CERON! Boa Vista Energia! Eletroacre! Research Center! CEPEL CEPEL! CEPEL is the research center of Eletrobrás and of its electricity production, transmission and distribution companies.! R&D Activities for Eletrobrás Group Companies are mainly carried out by CEPEL.! CEPEL was created in 1974 to meet the needs of the rapidly expanding Brazilian electric sector, and today occupies a prominent position in the international scene.! CEPEL is the largest electric power research center in the Southern Hemisphere. CEPEL s s Mission!To provide technological solutions for electric power generation, transmission and distribution. ! CEPEL Activities:! R&D projects, producing prototypes and processes and providing technological and laboratory services for the whole Brazilian power sector.! Computer programs to support the operation of the Brazilian electric system, the supervision and control of the grid and the expansion of the sector nationwide.! CEPEL clients:! Eletrobrás Group Companies;! Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME);! Regional generation, private transmission companies and distribution utilities:! Electrical equipment manufacturers;! Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL);! National Operator of the Electric System (ONS). Infrastructure! Human resources! 145 permanent researchers! 169 collaborating researchers! 94 specialist technicians.! Laboratories! CEPEL has 30 laboratories equipped with modern infrastructure for carrying out research work and tests. Research and Development Systems Automation Department: Development of tools for data acquisition, real time operation of electric systems and disturbance analysis. Electric System Department: Development of methods and computer programs to assist in the expansion, supervision, control and operation of the electric power system, within the strict requirements of security and quality criteria. Department of Special Technologies: Research and application of technologies directed at the use of materials in electric installations, energy efficiency and renewable sources, including sustainability analysis and economic feasibility analysis. Research and Development Installations and Equipment Department: Development of technologies to improve equipment used in generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy (computer models, testing and metering techniques, monitoring and diagnostic systems). Department of Energy Optimization and Environmental Issues: Development of computer programs for planning the expansion and operation of the interconnected hydro-thermal system. The environmental impacts of new projects are fully taken into account in the multicriteria expansion planning tools. Laboratories # Analytical Chemistry # Corrosion # Microscopy # Mechanical Properties # Insulating Fluids and Paper # Electric and Magnetic Properties # Refrigeration # Lighting # Superconductivity # Geographic Information System # Signal Processing # Low-Voltage Devices # Photovoltaic Systems # Electric Equipment and Magnetic Compatibility # Power and Energy Quality # Supervision and Control # Energy Metering Techniques and Devices # Electronic Measurement # High-Voltage # Corona # Pollution # Current Impulse # Instrument Calibration # Reference Center for Solar and Wind Energy # High Current # High and Medium Power # Safety in Electro-electronic Equipment # Equipment Diagnostics and Electric Installations # Center for the Application of Efficient Technologies Brazilian Sources of Electricity Production Hydro 68,577 MW Gas 8,547 MW Oil 5,941 MW Coal 1,461 MW 8.77 % 6.1 % 1.5 % 2.06% 2.81% 0.03% Nuclear 2,007 MW Biomass 2,739 MW 8.38% Wind Energy - 29 MW Imports 8,170 MW % CEPEL s Activities on Fuel Cells! Establishment of a Fuel Cell Laboratory for system and hydrogen production performance evaluation;! Demonstration project - 5 kw PEMFC with Natural Gas Reformer for hydrogen production (together with CHESF);! Participation in a project (Ministry of Science and Technology funded) for the construction of an Ethanol Reformer for hydrogen production;! Participation in the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) Working Group for the elaboration of the Brazilian Policy on Hydrogen. 5 kw PEM Fuel Cell and NG Reformer Eletrobrás and CEPEL s Vision! Fuel Cells may have an important role for the expansion of distributed generation in Brazil;! The Brazilian industry has already technical capacity for manufacturing stationary Fuel Cells;! Cost reduction of FC depends on large scale production;! There is a network of Universities and Research Centers capable to support a Policy for Hydrogen use in Brazil; Eletrobrás and CEPEL s Vision (cont.)! Brazil should, through the government development agencies, induce and promote R&D on hydrogen generation from biomass (ethanol) and from electrolysis;! An Integrated Electrical System, associated to the Hydro Generation, places Brazil in privileged position for hydrogen production from electrolysis;! The Brazilian experience on ethanol production for automotive use legitimate the R&D investments to obtain hydrogen from ethanol. Thank You Dr. Eduardo T. Serra Research Consultant R&D Directorate CEPEL Electric Power Research Center ELETROBRÁS GROUP Hydrogen Production from NG Nm3/h 200Nm3/h 2000Nm3/h 0.6 y = 0.61x Hydrogen - US$/Nm y = 0.38x y = 0.52x Natural Gas - US$/Nm3 Adapted from: Simader, G. - Fuel Cell Technologies for Hydrogen (Part I: Basic Principles). Lisbon,15-19 April 2002 Hydrogen Production from Electricity Nm3/h 200Nm3/h 2000Nm3/h y = 4.5x Hydrogen - US$/Nm y = 4.5x y = 4.5x Electricity - US$/kWh Adapted from: Simader, G. - Fuel Cell Technologies for Hydrogen (Part I: Basic Principles). Lisbon,15-19 April 2002 Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis (DOE Targets) Target Cost (US$/kg) Cost (US$/Nm 3 ) Present 6,10 0, ,80 0, ,50 0,32 Hydrogen Production by NG Reform (DOE Targets) Target Cost (US$/kg) Cost (US$/Nm 3 ) Present 5,00 0, , ,50 0,14 Fuel Hydrogen Natural Gas LPG LHV (per mass unit) kj/kg kj/kg kj/kg LHV (per volume unit) Specific Mass ,083 kj/m 3 kg/m kj/m 3 0,72 kg/m kj/m 3 2,19 kg/m 3 Reference Price US$/GJ 3 US$1/m 100 to to US$6/m US$0.17/m to 5 to 15 US$0.53/m 3 US$10/bottle with 13kg 16 Ethanol kj/kg kj/liter 0,809 kg/liter US$0.65/liter 30 Gasoline kj/kg kj/liter 0,742 kg/liter US$0.80/liter 24 Diesel kj/kg kj/liter 0,852 kg/liter US$0,32/liter 12
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