Elektriseadmete raalprojekteerimine kursuse metoodiline juhend: transformaator. Metoodiline juhend üliõpilastele ja juhendajatele - PDF

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Eeieadmete raarojeteerimine urue metoodiine juhend: anformaator Metoodiine juhend üiõiatee ja juhendajatee Studying guide in coure on umerica modeing and deign of eecica device: anformer Guide for tudent

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Eeieadmete raarojeteerimine urue metoodiine juhend: anformaator Metoodiine juhend üiõiatee ja juhendajatee Studying guide in coure on umerica modeing and deign of eecica device: anformer Guide for tudent and uervior Project Aication of interdiciinary and internationa team and roject baed earning in Mater Studie I 557 Studying guide Objective A conuction and ome deign guideine of the ow-votage ow-ower anformer are decribed in thi aer. The guideine aow tudent to roceed through the deign roce, modeing and anayi of the ma-ize anformer for adated ower uie. A a reut a technica ecification can be comoed in order to buid a rototye mode. Thi materia coud be efficienty ued when tudying or teaching anformer and coud be a comementary materia for ome caica textboo decribing anformer conuction and deign. The uroe of thi materia i to achieve a comete deign exerience, where much earning tae ace, o that the tudent get a good hand-on exerience of exhautivey anaying, deigning and finay rototying the device. The materia avoid etabihing a deign mode that coud be directy run in comuter oftware in order to faciitate theoretica art of the wor. The materia rather ie to give ome cacuation exame and anayi that coud be ued in the deign mode that i actuay engineered by a tudent. Guiding quetion Q houd encourage the deveoment of a creative thining and an inteigence of anayi. Thi deign guide for tudent and uervior are ued during individua rearation eriod and it i continued in the team-wor eion to tudy the deign of anformer focuing on energy converion efficiency, cot effectivene and cot anayi. Content Inoduction.... Deign goa.... Deign conain....3 Deign otimization... Conuction of a anformer...3. Tranformer with a aminated core...4. Winding configuration Deign of a anformer Functionaity ecification Geomeic modeing Size equation Equivaent circuit of a anformer...5 4 umerica fied modeing of a anformer Mode arameterization Magnetization Loaded anformer Temerature rie Comutation equence A three-hae anformer Conuction Eecic circuit Exerimenta wor Prototying Meaurement...37 Reference...39 Inoduction A earning roce that bae on the individua effort and deveo the theoretica undertanding and the ractica exerience ha undoubtedy a great inut to the education of eecica engineer. Thi articuar coure bae on the numeric modeing, deign and rototying of eecica device in articuar ma ower uy anformer. The objective in thi coure i to achieve a comete deign exerience incuding the deign, the actua conuction and the teting of an eecomagnetic device uch a a anformer [8] [4][5]. It i imortant to utiize the advantage of comuter aided deign and manufacturing (CAD/ CAM) in order to mae a device that meet a the erformance requirement of the device at minimum cot. A good deign i an otima utiization of geomey, roertie of media and erformance requirement. ote that the deign goa i to exceed, not to jut meet, the erformance and reiabiity requirement. Thi come from the hioohy that given fixed reource the engineer' ta i to get the mot from thee reource. The deign guideine are focued on ow and fixed frequency domain. In the onger erective the guideine materia houd be extended in order to deign or to evauate any ind of eecomagnetic energy converter a anformer that oeration mode i Conventiona Switching Reonance and the common uroe i Power anfer Power conditioning Gavanic earation A a matter of fact the guideine materia in the reent ize focue to the ow frequency continuou mode inge hae anformer in order to etabih a good hyica undertanding, which i eentia in the comuter aided deign roce [5][6][8][9][][3][5][6][0][][3]. Therefore it coud be fruating that the robem in eecomagnetim are handed amot ie tatic by negecting the infuence of the time deendent fied. Anyway the witched mode ower uy (SMPS) wi be a continuation to the reent materia [].. Deign goa The erformance requirement for the ower anformer or the anformer functionaity i obtained by the eecica deign factor, which are reated to the uy and to the oad uch a ower, votage, frequency and number of hae and the votage reguation. The device of a certain ower uoe to fufi certain requirement to inuation in order to withtand the temerature and avoid fahover. Therma requirement and cooing condition are tated in the ecification. Additionay the mechanica or eecomagnetic condition uch a audibe noie or hieding, reectivey, can be ecified. Mechanica ength requirement, vibration, reonant mode, etc are uuay not rioritized a a deign goa. . Inoduction. Deign conain The anformer rincie of oeration bae on Faraday aw of induction. The chaenge of deigning a anformer i to ove a coued robem of mutihyic. Thi incororate eecomagnetim, mechanic, heat anfer and the couing between the different fied that i a in accordance with energy converion rincie. Theoretica deign factor are ued to quantify the hyica arameter of the energy converion roce [9]. They can be broen into five area: eecica, dieecic, magnetic, mechanica and therma. Thee can be ao een in turn a different circuit with fow and fow denitie, which are coued into geomey. The fow denitie uch a the eecica current, the magnetic fux and the o ower denity can be conidering a the oading that etabih the reation between the ize, the materia roertie and the erformance of the energy converter. In the cae of a anformer one of the deign conain i to mode and ecify roery it behaviour in the circuit aication (incuding the effect of mutihyic)..3 Deign otimization In order to otimize a anformer it i neceary to find an aroriate geomeic diibution of materia and ource that fufi the erformance requirement a device mode. The otima deign of an eecic device i to chooe a et of dimenion for the device (deign variabe), o that the deigned device wi atify the deign criteria (conaint) and minimize (or maximize) ome additiona criterion (objective function). The objective function, which coud be choen uch a minima oe, minima cot (and temerature) [3], minima weight etc, are otimized [4][7]. Conuction of a anformer A anformer ha at eat a air of coi coued magneticay together. A a conequence ome of the magnetic fux roduced by current in one of the coi in the turn of the other(), and vice vera. Magnetic fux and eecic current indicate the fow and the reence of magnetic and eecica circuit(). The fundamenta uroe of any magnetic core or a circuit i to rovide an eay ath for fux in order to faciitate fux inage or magnetic couing between two or more magnetic eement. In an eecomagnetic energy converter the magnetic eement are rimary and the econdary winding. The eecomagnetic couing between the magnetic and eecic circuit obey Amere and Faraday aw (Figure.). φ i emf E dφ E d dt mmf H H d i Figure. Amere and Faraday aw decribing the tatic and the dynamic connection between the eecica and the magnetica quantitie. The reaon for an eecica current i the eecomotive force (emf) uch a for the magnetic fux i the magnetomotive force (mmf). Tranformer can be een a an eecomagnetic inductor that i oaded with a econdary winding. A a matter of fact a anformer that intantaneouy convert energy between the rimary and the econdary winding have to have high magnetic ermeabiity of the magnetic circuit a the energy torage in the anformer core i undeired araitic effect. On conary, a anformer oerating in witching mode need to have intermediate energy torage that mean a ow net magnetic ermeabiity of the circuit. Figure. Eecomagnetic circuit with the hortet contour ength. The origin of he and core tye. One oibe, a geomeicay idea couing of eecic and magnetic circuit i hown in Figure.. It woud not be comicated to imagine that circuit A coud be the eecic circuit and circuit B i the magnetic circuit, or vice vera. From functionaity oint of view the eecic circuit may conit a many earate winding a needed. The winding are wound coe to each other in order to 4. Conuction of a anformer reduce eaage fux and to reduce a votage reguation. From manufacturabiity oint of view, a winding i comoed from a number of eecicay inuated wire and o that the neceary amere turn or votage er turn can be achieved. Simiary, the magnetic circuit coud be made from a magnetic wire. For the medium and high ower, ow frequency anformer it i imortant that the magnetic core ha ow ermeabiity, ow magnetization oe and the core coud be eaiy aembed. Thi condition i fufied by uing a tac of aminated eecomagnetic tee heet.. Tranformer with a aminated core Two genera configuration of iron and coer in a anformer are he or core tye of anformer. Figure.3 how the cro-ection of a anformer that i in magnetic fux ane and erendicuar to the eecic current. Figure.4 how on conary the cro-ection of a anformer that i in eecic current ane and erendicuar to the magnetic fux. Further invetigation of the different core tye i decribed in chater Error! Reference ource not found.. Mot ma ower anformer are he-tye, in which the iron urround the coer. The magnetic circuit i divided into two return ath on ooite ide of the core, a i done with the E and I amination, a hown. Another configuration, the core tye, in which the coer urround the iron, i common with arger high-votage anformer, a we a with ma ferrite-core toroida anformer. ote that both rimary and econdary winding are aced on each eg. The amination are L-haed to mae a core of uniform cro-ection with a cena rectanguar window. Core anformer are exectedy eaier to inuate and to coo. If the rimary winding were aced on one eg and the econdary on the other, a in the diagram of anformer in text, eaage fux woud be exceive, and the anformer woud have oor reguation (variation of votage with oad). Thi ind of anformer anayi i decribed in chater 4. There are other ecia tye of conuction uch a diibuted core, etc, but a can be caified a he or core. The imortant feature of the anformer core, which i made a a tac of amination, i a high ermeabiity. Thi can be achieved, eeciay in grain oriented eecomagnetic tee, where the materia have a high ermeabiity in the roing direction and not a good any other direction. Grain-oriented tee i inherenty uitabe for wound-core conuction (right coumn in Figure.3 and Figure.4). The imet way to buid a wound core i to wind a continuou i of tee on a rectanguar form. When the deired thicne ha been buit u the core i it into two have for a inge magnetic fux oo. If the anar amination are the ame or the contant width of the tee i in the wound core, it i obviou that the magnetic circuit wi have a rectanguar cro-ection. However, if the narrower amination are ued for the outer ayer, then it i oibe to get moreor-e round cro-ection of the magnetic core. Another imortant feature of the aminated anformer core i the magnetization oe. If the amination thicne i reduced by factor, then the eddy current o i reduced by a factor. The eddy current oe are roortiona to eecic reitivity of the materia. Hyterei oe are uuay indeendent of materia imurity, which reut at the ame time higher reitivity and hyterei oe. The fringing fied in the amination join and ay fux in the erendicuar direction of the amination ate are ignificant ource of oe and the oca heating. Q. What ind of hae houd have dicrete amination in order to form a core and which cae the advantage can be taen of the grain oriented tee? Q. What ind of hae and roortion uoe to have a crae amination (the amination tam from a rectange of eecomagnetic tee heet ha no wate eft over)? Q.3 How houd oo ie the correonding he and core tye anformer (D/3D) for a three-hae anformer? . Conuction of a anformerconuction of a anformer 5 Figure.3 The cro-ection of a anformer on the ane of magnetic fux fow. The uer row indicate a core-tye anformer and the ower row a he-tye of anformer. The anformer with anar amination are hown in the eft coumn and the wound-core anformer in the right coumn. If the ame eecic conductor cro-ection i conidered then the core-tye of anformer are exectedy onger comared to he-tye of anformer, which i due to additiona inuation materia. Figure.4 The cro-ection of a anformer on the ane of eecic current fow. The uer row indicate a core-tye anformer and the ower row a he-tye of anformer. The anformer with anar amination are hown in the eft coumn and the wound-core anformer in the right coumn. The thinner cro-ection of the winding in the core-tye of anformer give exectedy the advantage of the ower therma e. 6. Conuction of a anformer. Winding configuration The uua winding arrangement i that the ow votage coi ha been wound coet to the core and the high-votage coi ha been wound on to of the ow votage coi, which i different that i hown in Figure.3 and Figure.4. A andwiched configuration where the ow votage ection i divided into two have and the high votage winding i aced between give imroved votage reguation. Winding can be wound ao in ection in ide to ide a a radia dic intead of axia ayer. A a matter of fact the concenic coi reduce inefficient (eaage) area and thu imrove the votage reguation. One way or another there normay wi be a coniderabe thicne of inuation between the rimary and the econdary coi. The imortant in the winding configuration i the caabiity to diiate heat and to bear eecodynamica force in the anient and hort-circuit condition, which tend to round out of the fat ide of the oo coi. In ractice, mot of the anformer coi are wound on a form, died in inuating varnih, baced in rigid ma, and then are aembed with core. The good therma contact between the core and the winding i imortant in order to faciitate the heat diiation. Q.4 Why doe the cooing robem become rogreivey more difficut a anformer ize increae? Q.5 How houd be the winding aced in order to tae advantage of good bacing and imroved heat diiation, ower eaage and better votage reguation? 3 Deign of a anformer In order to deign a anformer, or to examine in more detai how it deart from ideaitic, it i neceary to undertand how a anformer wor, not jut how to exre it termina reation in an aroximate way. It i ao imortant to now how the roertie of the iron core affect the erformance of the anformer. A rea anformer become hot becaue of oe, and the outut votage may vary with oad even when the rimary votage i hed contant. It i imortant not imy to deign a anformer that wi do, but one that i economica, efficient and mae the bet ue of avaiabe materia. Tranformer deign conit of five art: hyica undertanding, mathematica modeing, ynthei, anayi and a cot functiona [4]. Anayi generay mean the action of taing omething aart in order to tudy it. Synthei i an ooite roce which reut in a new creation. Deign a a roce i originating and deveoing a an for a new object. Deign a a reut i the fina an or rooa to roduce the new object. Deigning normay require conidering functiona, and many other aect of an object, which uuay require coniderabe reearch, thought, modeing, iterative adjutment, and re-deign. Generay, functiona refer to omething abe to fufi it uroe or function. Deign a a roce can tae many form deending on the object being deigned and the individua or individua articiating. Otimize the magnet device deign. Otimized for a ight-weight conuction [], cot, efficiency, reiabiity or ome other requirement. The deign roce can be detaied and broen down in a number of conequentia te or/and oo. By giving a hot overview, the ize, hae and materia of the core mut be choen, and the number of turn of the rimary and econdary winding. The ize of the wire and the inuation determine if the winding wi fit in the ace avaiabe. The winding mut be arranged for minimum eaage fux. The inuation determine the ermiibe temerature rie, and mean of cooing mut baance the o of energy under oad. The number of rimary turn i determined o that the magnetizing current i imited to an accetabe vaue, and deend on the ength of the core. The area of the core i determined by the required vot er turn, now that the tota number of turn i nown. Thee are the thing that determine the ize and weight of a anformer. Deign roce i an iterative roce that may incude a number of weeing tatement or imifying aumtion e.g. the fux denity i uniform throughout the core. The next ine give an overview of functionaity arameter of a anformer, invetigate the ize of a anformer and decribe the mode of a anformer. 3. Functionaity ecification Deite the many tye of eeconic anformer, their theory of oeration doe not differ. Eecica function are uuay imiar but deign characteritic can differ in certain way. Some exame are; unioar veru bioar core utiization, aturating or not aturating, degree of energy torage, reguation, and anformer imedance. The uroe of a anformer i a ower conditioning where the votage change-ratio and the gavanic earation between the ource and the oad are achieved. The anformer can tand aone for ower conditioning or incude more comonent in order to adat the ower ource to the oad. Aart from that the ower conditioning circuit may incude rotection circuit or eement buit into the anformer. 8 3. Deign of a anformer Rated ower The aarent ower of a anformer deend on the fow denitie uch a eecic current, magnetic fux and heat o ower denity []. Baicay the ize of anformer can be evauated according the rated ower, frequency and the diiated oe. Rated rimary and econdary votage The rimary votage and the ower conditioning ecify the number of turn in the winding. Reguation Reguation incude both the inut and the outut votage variation of the anformer. Line Reguation i the variation of main votage, aied to the rimary winding of the anformer. The changing of votage on the rimary winding reut in a change of a votage on econdary ide with the ame ercent (which i by tandard ±0%). Load Reguation i a change in outut votage with a change of oad. U 0 U L δ U 00% ( 3. ) U L where the outut votage at no oad i U 0 and outut votage at fu oad i U L. Mounting and cooing condition The ize of any eecomagnetic or mechanic converter i baicay imited by therma condition. An aowed diiation ower can be given or the cooing condition can be ecified. One of thee condition can ecify the temerature in the anformer in reect to the generated heat oe. The hot ot temerature and the aowed temerature deign i the actua imit. Inuation ca Inuation ytem incude a ioation materia ued in manufacture of anformer uch a bobbin, heet fim, fim tae inuation, varnih covering of wire, varnih for imregnation etc. The temerature tabiity each comonent houd not be ower than the temerature vaue for ecific inuation cae. The other imortant function i the eecica inuation and gavanic earation. Q.6 Doe outut votage U decreae roortionay with the increae of the oad and why? How it deend on the ize of a anformer? 3. Geomeic modeing The roortion of the core-tye and the he-tye anformer are invetigated. The uroe of thee invetigation are. to determine theoreticay the maximum fow cro-ection area for the eecic and the magnetic circuit,. to exre the ize exreion baed to anarent ower, voume and the eecomagnetic fow denitie, 3. to find out the roortion of the anformer when conidering the heat oe and heat anfer i.e. the maximum temerature rie in a anformer. 3. Deign of a anformer 9 Geomey The geomeic arameterization of the he-tye and the core-tye of anformer are viuaized in Figure 3.. A it i exreed the anformer houd fit in to the ame rectanguar voume. Figure 3. The geomey arameterization of the he tye (eft coumn) and the core tye (right coumn) of anformer. The uer row how the magnetic fux fow ane (xy-ane) and the ower row how the eecic current fow ane (xz-ane). The overa anformer ength, width w and height h define the bounding voume V that i a voume of a rectanguar araeeied box where the anformer fit in. The overa dimenion can be exreed through a inge dimenion and roortion to thi choen reference dimenion uch a reative width W and reative height H comared to the overa ength. W H W 3 H V w h ( 3. ) The ength of the eg in the magnetic core i exreed by uing the reative ot ength and the ength needed to form a one eecomagnetic oe. For the inge-hae core and he tye of anformer the number of oe. c ( ) ( 3.3 ) Simiary the ength of the ot i formuated according to
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