Dmitriy Ilín, Project Manager, Global Report on Food Tourism Iñaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE - Tourism Industry Consultants - PDF

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World Tourism Organization, 2012 Secretary General: Taleb Rifai Executive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Márcio Favilla L. de Paula Editorial team: Series editor: Dmitriy

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World Tourism Organization, 2012 Secretary General: Taleb Rifai Executive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Márcio Favilla L. de Paula Editorial team: Series editor: Dmitriy Ilín, Project Manager, Global Report on Food Tourism Iñaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE - Tourism Industry Consultants Peter Jordan UNWTO would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed material to this report. Copyright 2012, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Global Report on Food Tourism Published by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain. First printing: 2012 All rights reserved. Printed in Spain. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Photos by UNWTO and Dreamstime World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Tel.: (+34) Calle Capitán Haya, 42 Fax: (+34) Madrid Website: Spain Citation: World Tourism Organization (2012), Global Report on Food Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, work and is pleased to consider permissions, licensing, and translation requests related to UNWTO publications. Permission to photocopy UNWTO material in Spain must be obtained through: Calle Monte Esquinza, 14 Fax: (+34) Madrid Website: Spain For authorization of the reproduction of UNWTO works outside of Spain, please contact one of CEDRO s partner organizations, with which bilateral agreements are in place (see: For all remaining countries as well as for other permissions, requests should be addressed directly to the World Tourism Organization. For applications see: Global Report on Food Tourism CONTENTS Foreward Taleb Rifai / 4 Introduction / 5 Gastronomy s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world / 6 Global trends on food tourism / 10 What our Members say / 12 CASE STUDIES International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of eating well / 18 Food and the Tourism Experience / 20 Foda / 22 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist / 26 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour / 28 Egypt: food tourism experience / 30 Food and wine tourism in Georgia / 32 Kazakhstan: tracing the country s ancient history through its food / 34 Gastronomic tourism in Korea - Globalizing Hansik / 36 A taste of Moscow / 38 Malaysia: at the cross-roads of Asian food culture / 40 Morning pilau, or peculiarities of Uzbek cuisine / 42 Business organizations Tasting Spain: the creation of a product club for gastronomic tourism / 46 Food and wine tourism: Challenges and Opportunities / 48 Sustainable gastronomy: Prospects for the Future / 50 Fine dining: an awakening to art de vivre Relais & Châteaux-style / 52 A brief summary of the SETE study Gastronomy & the Marketing of Greek Tourism / 54 Educational organizations The Basque Culinary Center / 58 Safety Food the Brazilian Experience / 60 Presentation of the B.E.S.T. concept / 62 Foreword Taleb Rifai, Secretary-General, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) For many of the world s billions of tourists, returning to familiar destinations to enjoy tried and tested recipes, cuisine, gastronomy has become a central part of the tourism experience. Against this background, food tourism has gained increasing attention over the past years. Tourists are attracted to local produce and many destinations are centering their product development and marketing accordingly. With food so deeply connected to its origin, this focus allows destinations to market themselves as truly unique, appealing to those travelers who look to feel This is especially important for rural communities, many of which have struggled in the face of rapid urbanization and shifts away from traditional economic sectors. With their proximity to food-producing lands, rural communities often enjoy a comparative advantage when it comes to serving up traditional fare. Tourism, particularly food tourism, allows these communities to generate income and employment opportunities locally, providing jobs for vineyard tour guides or local chefs, while fuelling other sectors of the local economy such as agriculture. The Global Report on Food Tourism, the latest in the takes a closer look at the links between tourism and food, highlighting the importance of this industry to the tourism sector and economies worldwide. Bringing together experiences from some of the world s top tourism destinations, as well as from food tourism experts, the report offers important insight and recommendations into this growing segment of tourism. Members and other organizations who have contributed to this report. I trust it will serve as a delicious appetizer to the improved knowledge and continued development of food tourism. UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai 4 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism The aim was to try to obtain a series of conclusions regarding some of the initiatives that are going on worldwide in Food Tourism for possible inclusion in the the public sector and businesses about policies for Introduction In recent years, Food Tourism has grown considerably and has become one of the most dynamic and creative segments of tourism. Both destinations and tourism companies are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to diversify tourism and stimulate local, regional and national economic development. Furthermore, Food Tourism includes in its discourse ethical and sustainable values based on the territory, the landscape, the sea, local culture, local products, authenticity, which is something it has in common with current trends of cultural consumption. This new volume of the AM Reports series, Global Members of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and was produced with the support of Member States, In this Report, we have attempted to carry out an analysis of the current situation of Food Tourism, through of tourism and gastronomy professionals with extensive experience in international organizations, in destination training. importance of gastronomy in the development of tourism destinations in the world and reviews the global trends in Food Tourism. It also reports on the results of the survey the current situation of Gastronomic Tourism. The second part of the report presents case studies of Food Tourism. First, it presents international initiatives such as Eurotoques, an organization of chefs that includes more than 3,500 restaurateurs from 18 countries; the study carried out by the OECD on Food and the Tourism Experience ; and the Slow Food movement, which was founded in 1986 and is present in more than 122 countries. regional and national tourism destinations, such as Brazil, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Uzbekistan and Moscow. It also includes the experience of business organizations the management and promotion of Food Tourism of Spain; the Portuguese Institute for Tourism Planning and Development (IPDT); the Hotel and Gastronomy Business Federation of Argentina (FEHGRA); Relais & Chateaux, an exclusive collection of 475 charming hotels and gourmet restaurants in 55 countries; and the Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE). educational institutions, such as the Basque Culinary Centre in San Sebastian, the National Confederation of Trade in Goods, Services and Tourism of Brazil (CNC- SENAC) and the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, on their vision and the role of human resources training in the development of Food Tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 5 Gastronomy s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world Carmina Fandos Herrera, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza Javier Blanco Herranz, PhD Student in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza gastronomic tourism? Today, travellers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty. Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavour the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part. Current research in gastronomic tourism is scarce and is mainly focused on wine, and oenotourists are not necessarily the same individuals who engage in other, nonoenological gastronomic activities. Gastronomic tourism is an emerging phenomenon that is being developed as a new tourism product due, inter alia, to the fact that according to the specialized literature (among others, Quan and Wang, 2004) over a third of tourist spending is devoted to food. Therefore, the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. used in the literature is that proposed by Hall and Sharples (2003), according to which food tourism is an experiential trip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainment purposes, which includes visits to primary and secondary producers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events, farmers markets, cooking shows and demonstrations, tastings of quality food products or any tourism activity related to food. In addition, this experiential journey is related to a particular lifestyle that includes experimentation, learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of the qualities or attributes related to tourism products, as well as culinary specialities produced in that region through its consumption. Thus, the experience of gastronomic tourism is considered as such, provided that everything mentioned above constitutes the main reason or motivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination or But even without gastronomy being the main motivation for choosing a destination, the fact is that it is increasingly 6 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism occupying a substantial role as a secondary or partial motivation of tourists in the world (according to recent research, eating in restaurants is the second favourite activity of foreigners visiting the United States and is the number one leisure activity for U.S. travellers when they visit other countries). outside the scope of the product gastronomic tourism, and adaptable to tourism-motivation dynamics that are increasingly plural and complex. Thus, we can take a step further and say that gastronomic tourism applies to tourists and visitors who plan their trips partially or totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place or to carry out activities related to gastronomy. Gastronomic tourism comprises many different subtypes if we look through the prism of the food or dish in question. Thus we have, for example, offerings related to whisky, cider, cognac, cava, horchata, sake, or tea. Gastronomic routes are becoming without doubt one of the most developed products in this area. A gastronomic route is a system that constitutes a comprehensive and thematic tourism offering, generally branded, and is area (although in reality, gastronomy has no borders), with a series of tourism products or sites, such as factories and restaurants, which are listed in tourism guidebooks dish, generally with differentiated quality, or gastronomic events or activities. The route also informs about other sites of historical interest, thus promoting economic development throughout the area. Therefore, the idea is to bring together different types of tourist attractions and to offer them in a conveniently packaged form so that tourists stay longer in the area than if only one kind of attraction is featured. In our opinion, gastronomic routes will be successful if they manage to activate gastronomic heritage and convert it into food tourism as an attraction for tourists, while at the same time differentiating it from the competition as visitors look for variety, new sensations and authentic experiences. But, any creation or value proposition made to strengthen travel motivations centred on gastronomy should be underpinned by sustainability principles and practices and organized around an effective system of public-private cooperation. Both approaches are inseparable and can restaurants and food industries, but also other sectors indirectly related but linked to tourism, creating conditions for improving local employment and the promotion of new Carmina Fandos Herrera Gastronomic tourism, lifestyle and tourism motivations Lifestyle is used in tourism to assess involvement in tourism experiences. Researchers have pointed out that culinary tourism is an authentic experience of a sophisticated lifestyle in a pleasant environment, associated with the good life and the economic wellbeing of consuming exclusive, high-quality locally grown products. Tourist motivations constitute a key concept for the design and creation of products and services that add value for tourists. Motivations are related to consumer satisfaction and are considered a key component in understanding the decision-making process of visitors. Thus, several physical or physiological needs (sensory perception and hedonism) security, cultural and social needs, the need to belong or interpersonal needs, the need for prestige (local delicacies), status or self-realization. In addition, UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 7 the literature posits two dimensions for motivation: the hedonistic, with regard to aesthetic products, and the utilitarian or rational. tourist motivations as either internal stimuli or push, or external stimuli or pull. The former are considered from the perspective of demand, and they lead the tourist to travel to gastronomic tourism destinations that often include desires as well as psychological, social and ego-centric needs such as escapism from the daily routine, relaxing with family, rest, exploration and social interaction and affective or emotional bonding. The resources considered pull factors are cultural and natural attractions, special events and festivals, experiences with food products in the destinations and other opportunities for leisure and entertainment, value, friendliness of residents, gastronomic diversity and variety, attributes or characteristics of the destination such as proximity, etc....the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. Tourism destination image and the gastronomic tourism experience Several studies have found that tourists travel to those destinations that have established a reputation as a place to experiment with quality local products. whose brand image is connected, with varying levels of intensity, to gastronomic values. By way of example, it is possible to give a non-exhaustive list that includes, among others, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, USA (especially in areas such as California s Napa and Sonoma Valleys), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, Chile, Malaysia, Japan, example, that the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November As for the gastronomic tourism experience, it can be a number of attributes (attractiveness of the food and environment, quality of service), after a stay in a tourist destination where the tourist engaged in an activity related to gastronomy. The tourist s perceived value of a particular destination or establishment is therefore multidimensional. Post-experience satisfaction is a critical indicator for assessing the effectiveness or performance of the products and services of the destination. The tourist s satisfaction with the purchase depends on the product s performance in relation to the tourist s expectations. It should be kept in mind that different cultures have different perceptions of satisfaction and evaluation of gastronomy and that high quality of service can result in dissatisfaction among consumers if their expectations had been too high, for example, due to exaggerated advertising. Javier Blanco Herranz Satisfaction with the destination leads to customer loyalty and this in turn gives a higher level of intention to repeat the visit. Quality gastronomy is a decisive factor in satisfaction, as it produces a lasting memory about the experience lived by the tourist. Thus, depending on the expectations held by the consumer as to the 8 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism gastronomy of the destination, such expectations predict behaviour. Here is where success lies: having tourists revisit the destination due to its gastronomy. The festive atmosphere, relaxation and fun experienced by the tourist during a gastronomic route, and the social interaction with people of similar interests create associations in the tourist s mind linked to the good times experienced by the visitor. To recap, gastronomic tourism is a local phenomenon of universal scope that is in a clear growth phase; it has a positive impact on the economy, employment and local heritage, as tourists seek to get to know not only the local food but also to know its origin and production processes, making it an expression of cultural tourism; it has great potential for expansion as a main motivation for tourism trips and although this type of tourism is still practised by a minority of tourists, the fact is that it is attracting a very select type of tourist with a high volume of expenditure on very high-quality products, and lastly, the development of gastronomic tourism contributes to improving the general perception of the destination. the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November QUAN, S. & WANG, N. 2004, Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism Tourism management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp HALL, C.M. & SHARPLES, L. (2003). The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste in Food tourism around the world. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 9 Global trends in food tourism Iñaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant on food tourism A people that does not drink its wine and eat its cheese has a serious identity problem. The development of tourism today is paradoxical. It simultaneously generates processes of globalization and enhanced appreciation of local resources. Tourism destinations, obliged to maintain increasingly intense competitiveness and engaged in a constant struggle to retain some of their market, face an increasingly dynamic and sophisticated environment. The world is increasingly open; however, tourists seek experiences based on local identity and culture. In recent years gastronomy has become an indispensable element in order to get to know the culture and lifestyle of a territory. Gastronomy embodies all the traditional values associated with the new trends in tourism: respect for culture and tradition, a healthy lifestyle, authenticity, sustainability, experience Likewise, gastronomy represents an opportunity to revitalize and diversify tourism, promotes local economic development, involves different professional sectors (producers, chefs, markets, etc.), and brings new uses to the primary sector. This leading role of gastronomy in the choice of destination and tourism consumption has resulted in the growth of gastronomic offerings based on high-quality local products and the consolidation of a separate market for food tourism. What are the major global trends and the keys to success that can be observed in this development of food tourism? It is a grow
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