Dial Indicator 를이용한 Shaft Alignment 의이해와절차 - PDF

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Dial Indicator 를이용한 Shaft Alignment 의이해와절차 2 Introductions What exactly is shaft alignment? Rotating axes must be colinear during operation. 3 Introductions Type of misalignment Parallel Misalignment Vertical

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Dial Indicator 를이용한 Shaft Alignment 의이해와절차 2 Introductions What exactly is shaft alignment? Rotating axes must be colinear during operation. 3 Introductions Type of misalignment Parallel Misalignment Vertical & Horizontal offset Angular Misalignment Vertical & Horizontal Angularity Combined Misalignment Parallel Misalignment + Angular Misalignment 4 Introductions What is the objective of accurate alignment? To increase the operating lifespan of rotating machinery. Reduce excessive vibration Reduce bearing, coupling & seal failure. 5 Introductions What are the symptoms of misalignment? Premature bearing, seal, shaft, or coupling failures. Excessive radial and axial vibration. High casing temperatures at or near the bearings. Excessive amount of oil leakage at the bearing seals. Loose foundation bolts or broken coupling bolts. The shafts are breaking (or cracking) at or close to the inboard bearings or coupling hubs. 6 Introductions Alignment Methods & Resolution Laser 7 Introductions Alignment Tolerance 8 Alignment Procedure What does take to do each step in the alignment procedure? 1. Preparation - tools, people, training. 2. Obtain information on the machine being aligned. 3. Preliminary checks : Runout, soft foot, coupling, bearings, foundation, base plate, and piping strain on the machines. 4. Measure the shaft positions. 5. Decide who needs to be moved (which way and how much) and then physically reposition the machine(s) vertically, laterally and axially. 6. Install coupling and check for rotational freedom of drive train if possible. 7. Run and check the machinery. 9 Alignment Procedure Preliminary checks : Foundation & Baseplate Pads Piping Strain Vertical & Horizontal Limit =.5 mm Runout Shim-pack Soft Foot Limit =.5 mm 1 Alignment Procedure Soft Foot checks Dial Gage Feeler Gage TURBOLINK TURBOLINK 11 Alignment Procedure Runout Shaft & Coupling Rolling Element Bearing Outer Race ACCEPTABLE RACE RUNOUT, MILS/IN. (REFERENCED TO ROTATING CENTER) Bearings mils/in. Ball bearings 2. Cylindrical roller bearings 1. Plain bearings 1. Inner Race Plain thrust bearings.5 12 Alignment Procedure Dial Indicator Plus & Minus Sign 13 Alignment Procedure Indicator Readings Amount of Offset = TIR/2, TIR: Total Indicator Readings A α α B B /1 mm.2 mm +4 Top + Bottom = Right + Left TURBOLINK TURBOLINK TURBOLINK 14 Alignment Procedure Bar SAG SAG = TIR 2 TURBOLINK.5 mm Mandrel.5 mm Amount of SAG ( - ) TURBOLINK 15 Alignment Procedure Corrected Indicator Readings True Indicator Readings = Measured Readings Sag Readings Machine A C L of B.15 mm.5 mm C L of A.2 mm TRUE OFFSET Machine B Measured +15 Readings +15 B - SAG -5-5 Readings = Corrected 2 Indicator 2 Readings 16 Alignment Procedure Alignment Methods Using Indicator Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Reverse Shaft Alignment Applications Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Trains where one shaft can t be rotated during the alignment process. Machines with coupling hubs that are axially close to each other. Machines that have large diameter couplings. Small general purpose machines Reverse Shaft Alignment Long span machines Machines that require precision alignment. 17 Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Disadvantages Coupling hub runout will induce an error into the readings. Radial runout up to.5 mm Face runout up to.1 mm Machines with sleeve bearings can have a face reading error. It is necessary to locate the rotor in a fixed axial position for each sweep. On machines with a large axial floats, such as motor with sleeve bearings. 18 Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Typical Set-up Rim Indicator View from Fixed to Moveable Diameter at Face Indicator [ A ] Face Indicator Fixed Machine Moveable Machine Near Foot Far Foot Distance to Near Foot [ B ] Distance to Far Foot [ C ] 19 Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Offset Misalignment Vertical Rim Readings Rim Readings Horizontal Measured Readings SAG Readings Corrected Readings Moveable Machine.9 mm Fixed Machine Vertical Offset (Side View) 2 Rim & Face Shaft Alignment Angular Misalignment Corrected Readings Face : ANGnf = A : B ANGnf = Face x {B/A} Face : ANGff = A : C ANGff = Face x {C/A} Face α A = 8 α α ANGnf = -6 x {21/8} = ANGnf = -3 Fixed Machine B = 21 C = 4 Vertical Angular Misalignment (Side View) 21 Reverse Shaft Alignment Typical Set-up Distance of face to face [ D ] View from Fixed to Moveable Fixed Machine Moveable Machine Near Foot Far Foot Distance to Near Foot [ B ] Distance to Far Foot [ C ] 22 Reverse Shaft Alignment Graphic Expression (Vertical Movements) +5 Fixed Machine Fixed Machine Vo=(T-B)/ Up Down Vertical Misalignment (Side View) 23 Reverse Shaft Alignment Graphic Expression (Horizontal Movements) +5 Fixed Machine Fixed Machine Ho=(R-L)/ Horizontal Misalignment (Top View) Left Right 24 Movement Vertical Movement 25 Movement Horizontal Movement
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