Delian Elena 1 *, Bădulescu Liliana 1, Dobrescu Aurelia 1, Săvulescu Elena 1, Bădescu, C. 2. Development Fruit Growing Station, Voineşti, Romania - PDF

Description
Aspects regarding vegetative growing, reproductive development and minerals distribution in highbush blueberry leaves and fruits as affected by substrate composition Delian Elena 1 *, Bădulescu Liliana

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 8
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Marketing

Publish on:

Views: 19 | Pages: 8

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Transcript
Aspects regarding vegetative growing, reproductive development and minerals distribution in highbush blueberry leaves and fruits as affected by substrate composition Delian Elena 1 *, Bădulescu Liliana 1, Dobrescu Aurelia 1, Săvulescu Elena 1, Bădescu, C. 2 1 University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest, Romania; 2 Research and Development Fruit Growing Station, Voineşti, Romania *Corresponding author. Abstract Young blueberry plants of Blueray cv. of two-year-old propagated by rooting hardwood cuttings were transplanted into the pots with sixteen types of substrate (in different percent of peat, manure, sawdust, litter, and distillation residues), with the purpose to examine relationship between substrates characteristics, plants vegetative and reproductive development, also nutrients distribution in leaves and fruits. Plants vegetative growth was evaluated by branches length and new branches formation on a bush. Reproductive development was characterised by flowers apparition and some berries characteristic features. Minerals in the grown substrata, as well as in blueberry leaves and fruits were measured by ICP-AES multi-elemental analysis. The highest vegetative grown and the greatest positive effect on new branches grown was found for bushes grown on % peat: % manure, followed by those grown on % peat: % distillation residues, whereas the lowest when % peat: % sawdust was used. Clusters number, berries number in a cluster, also the fruit size varied and was substrate dependent. On % peat: % distillation residues bushes were vigorous without fruits, while on % peat: % manure bushes had many fruits. The biggest fruits were obtained from bushes grown on % peat: % manure: % distillation residues, while the smallest ones on: % peat: % manure: % sawdust: % litter. Exists a large variation between different substrate mixture concerning the content of nutrients, but the lower values there were registered for % peat: % sawdust. Also, our results emphasized the interrelation between substrates composition and minerals distribution in blueberry leaves and fruits. Key words Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Blueray, nutrients, substrate, leaves, fruits Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) native to the eastern North America has been introduced outside of its natural range for commercial berry production and are the most planted blueberry species in the world (16). Today, European blueberry production is mainly concentrated in Germany, Poland, France, the Netherland, Lithuania, Romania, Italy and Spain (14). In Romania, it was first cultivated in 1968 by Professor N. Ştefan, at Bilceşti in the Northern Argeş District of Romania (1). Within the fruits, the ones with highest antioxidant rates and others beneficially compounds are berry fruits, including blueberry fruit also. Thus, the demand for this crop among health-conscious consumers may increase in the near future. So, the development of new blueberry cultivar has focused on the improvement of characteristics desired for both growers and consumers. Blueberry breeding programs have aim for improved yield, improved fruit quality, improved resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and adaptation to different soils (14). In the last years, in our country, there were performed studies focused on improving the multiplication technologies (2, 6). Also, elsewhere there were carried out research regarding the impact of the growing substrate to seedling vigour, mineral soil adaptability, organic culture substrates or some fertilizers influence on blueberry productivity, quality and postharvest behaviour (15, 17, 3, 7, 10, 12, 13). Low-quality soils especially as a result of mine exploitation are the major constrains for agricultural exploitation in most submontaine areas, where climatic conditions for production are favourable. As previously mentioned, propagation methods exert significant influence on nursery and field performances of blueberries, and as recently have 334 been reported (18), the addition of organic materials ameliorates the adverse effects of mine soil on plant behaviour. As a part of an ample experiment, the first objective of this paper is to present the effects of the growing substrate composition on the vegetative and generative responses of young highbush blueberry cv. Blueray, and the second one to examine the substrate impact on minerals distribution in leaves and berries. Material and Methods Hardwood cuttings of two year old highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosus L. cv. Blueray ) were transplanted on different grown media, in pots and growth in the outdoor growing area at the Experimentally Tree Fruit Growing Field of the Faculty of Horticulture, U.S.A.M.V.Bucharest, Romania. When experiments were started in June 2007, plant aspects were those presented in Figure 1. Sixteen experimental variants were organized with different percent of peat, manure, sawdust, litter, and distillation residues (Table 1), with five replicates per variant. Vegetative bushes growing were measured at the beginning of October Substrata samples, leaves and fruits mineral composition was measured at the same moment (the end of June 2008). Each sample was dried in an oven at C for 24 h, further ashed at C for 6 hr. After cooling the resulting white ash was dissolved in 1 ml of concentrated nitric acid, adjusted to a volume of 50 ml with bidistillated water and the solutions were analyzed by a spectrometer inductively coupled with plasma (ICP-OES) IRIS INTREPRID. All determinations were carried out in triplicate and expressed on a dry weight basis. Using Statgraphics software there were compared the obtained data. Fig.1. Blueberry plants aspect before transplanting on different substrates The blueberry grown media composition for the used experimentally variants Variants Grown media composition % peat, % manure % peat, % waste % peat, % manure % peat, % sawdust % peat; % manure; % sawdust % peat, % litter % peat; % manure; % litter % peat; % distillation residues % peat; % manure; % distillation residues % peat; % manure; % sawdust; % litter; % distillation residues % peat; % manure; % sawdust; % litter; % peat; % manure; % sawdust; % litter; % peat; % manure; % sawdust;14.30 % distillation residues 14 57,10 % peat; % manure; % sawdust % peat; % manure; % litter; % distillation residues % peat; % manure; % litter; 12,50 % distillation residues Table 1 335 Results and Discussion In order to characterise blueberry plants from the view point of the vegetative development, results of the measurements carried out on the beginning of October 2007 are presented in Table 2. The highest vegetative grown and the greatest positive effect on new branches grown was found for bushes grown on % peat: % manure (V3), followed by those grown on % peat: % distillation residues (V 8) and % peat: % manure: % distillation residues (V 9), whereas the lowest when % peat: % sawdust was used (V4). During the second year from the transplanting moment, for the first decade of April there were noticed as very vigorous plants those of the variants V1, V2 and V3. Also, these bushes showed a large number of flowers and even fruits, in the early growing stage (a characteristic feature non advantageous for obtaining a quality planting material). Also, it must be noted the large variability between the studied variants as regard as bushes vigour, flowers, fruits presence and their developing stage. In June, it can be noticed the followings: V1- many large fruits, the most advanced in terms of growth and maturation (Figure 2), while for V4, V8, V13 variants fruits were absent. Variants Evaluation of the vegetative blueberry plants growing (October 2007) Branches total length for five bushes (cm) The medium length of the branches on a bush (cm) Total branches number for five bushes Table 2 The mean branches number on a bush On the end of June, data regarding fruits presence is presented in Table 3. The clusters number, the berries number in a clusters, also the fruit size varied and was substrate dependent. So, that is why for some variants we could not make determinations on fruit lack of sufficient biological material. It must be noticed for % peat; % distillation residues (V8) vigorous plants without fruits, while % peat, % manure (V1) had many fruits. The biggest fruit were obtained from bushes grown on % peat: % manure: % distillation residues, while the smallest on % peat: % manure: % sawdust: % litter. In the following sentences there will be discussed the results concerning substrata minerals content and their allocation at the leaves and fruits level. The content of nutrients in particular substrates is presented in Table 4. As we can see, generally it exists a large variation between different substrate mixtures, but the lower values there were registered for % peat: % sawdust (V4). 336 Fig.2. Aspects of V1 (the first two images) and V8 plants Variant Data regarding blueberry fructification and some berries characteristics Total berries number on 5 bushes Total berries mass (g) Mass/fruit (g) Mean clusters number on a bush ,93 1,30 5, ,46 1,36 5, ,69 1, ,66 1,38 1, ,53 1,30 2, ,55 1, ,22 1, ,02 1, ,66 1, ,44 1,41 1 Table 3 Variants Mineral composition of the growing substrates Macroelements and microelements (mg 100 g -1 fresh weight) K Ca Mg Fe Mn B Cu Al Na 1 27, ,10 65,27 127,39 8,03 0, ,63 7, , ,40 57,21 105,10 5,97 0,33 0,53 129,36 6, ,86 863,36 54,8 155,92 6,01 0,32 0,61 171,68 10,20 4 7,53 237,45 12,39 52,89 2,49 0,26 0,34 70,60 6, , ,19 56,77 131,27 6,76 0,40 0,72 142,14 11, ,15 846,13 34,54 135,59 11,41 0,34 0,51 185,76 9, , ,06 56,91 159,45 12,13 0,44 0,73 178,63 11, ,81 430,45 31,49 145,07 4,54 0,30 1,48 142,69 9, ,68 742,54 49,08 133,71 4,53 0,37 1,10 157,13 8, ,39 625,05 39,70 136,64 7,92 0,28 0,87 140,89 9, ,70 718,39 38,71 113,53 8,20 0,30 0,49 167,44 9, ,01 866,84 41,01 127,03 8,60 0,27 0,44 154,89 9, ,51 590,66 37,11 126,36 4,32 0,34 0,88 134,22 11, ,52 338,13 23,77 90,06 3,02 0,25 0,74 102,75 8, ,30 687,84 42,71 172,09 7,59 0,30 0,81 162,94 8,50 Table 4 337 mg/100 g dry weight 16 29,06 660,92 36,83 134,51 6,77 0,24 0,48 158,93 7,77 These data emphasized the influence of the substrates materials proportion on some macro and micronutrients. Potassium as an important element in photosynthesis and water regulation ranged from 7.53 mg 100 g -1 F.W. (V % peat:50.00 % manure) to mg 100 g -1 F.W. (V % peat: % manure: % distillation residues). For secondary macro-nutrients as for instance calcium and magnesium, it can be noticed the lowest mean values for the variant with a higher percent of sawdust (V % peat: % sawdust), mg 100 g -1 F.W. and mg 100 g -1 F.W., respectively. Also, our results emphasized that the substrates components had no generally influenced the magnesium level variation, while in the calcium case there was registered a larger variability. It s difficult to compare our results with others data because in others studies, generally there were not used the same materials proportions. For instance, in the case of peat, the macroelements composition expressed as mg 100 g -1 D.W. the following results have been presented (12): K-38; Ca-157; Mg-36, while for sawdust the values were: K-73; Ca-94; Mg-25. To discuss the elemental composition of leaves (Figure 3 and Figure 4), first of all it must be mention that according to the literature, leaves adequate nutrient level for blueberry is: K: %; Ca: %; Mg: %; B: ppm; Zn: 8-30 ppm; Cu: 5-20 ppm; Fe: ppm (5). As regarding the obtained potassium values, for the analyzed variants these are typically around the maximum limit or often exceed that limit. The mean value was mg 100 g -1 D.W., minimum values were recorded to V6 ( mg100 g -1 D.W.) and the maximum value at V3 ( mg 100 g-1 dry weight). Fig. 3. Some macroelements content of blueberry leaves K Ca Mg Experimental variants For calcium there were noticed the same trend, with values generally located near the the maximum limit. Note that although the substrate level was very low calcium concentration at V4 ( mg 100 g -1 F.W.) compared to other substrates, in leaves there was determined also relatively high values. Thus, the average was mg 100 g -1 D.W., the minimum was recorded at V3 (600.5 mg 100 g -1 D.W.) and the maximum was mg 100 g -1 D.W. (V6). Also, the greatest amount of Ca and Mg was found in the leaves of plants cultivated in sawdust (1.73 and 1.25 g kg -1, respectively) and in berries grown in peat substrate (0.14 and 0.42 g kg -1, respectively) (12). The literature indicates that a higher calcium concentration in leaves may be an indicator of large amounts of calcium in the soil, while small amounts of calcium in the leaves can be found in heavily fertilized soil, for vigorously plants or may be a result of low soil ph (which is not the case in this study). Magnesium level was around the value of mg 100 g -1 D.W., with a minimum value recorded at V3 ( mg 100 g -1 D.W.) and a maximum at V12 ( mg 100 g -1 D.W.). As it was also expected, microelements were accumulated in smaller quantities in leaves, with higher values for iron, followed by aluminum, sodium, manganese and boron. Thus, iron average level was 338 mg/100 g dry weight mg 100g -1 D.W., the minimum was recorded at V14 (2.46 mg 100g -1 D.W.) and maximum value at V5 (19.61 mg 100g -1 D.W.), followed by V1 (19.46 mg 100g -1 D.W.) and V3 (17.43 mg 100g -1 D.W.). Aluminum values ranged around mg 100g -1 D.W., with a minim of 8.47 mg 100g -1 D.W. (V14) and a maximum of mg 100g -1 D.W. (V4). For sodium, it was determined the average value of 6.99 mg 100g -1 D.W., the minimum of 3.34 mg 100g -1 D.W. (V6) and a maximum of mg 100 g -1 D.W. (V16). Manganese accumulated in a high concentration at V4 (8.63 mg 100g -1 D.W.), minimum at V16 (0.11 mg 100g -1 D.W.), with an averaged of 2.5 mg 100g -1 D.W. As regard the boron levels, the mean value determined was 1.62 mg 100g -1 D.W., the minimum 0.28 mg D.W. (V3) and a maximum of 5.78 mg D.W (V7). Fig. 4. Some microelements content of blueberry leaves Fe Mn B Al Na Experimental variants Concerning the nutrient accumulation in fruits, data are shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6. It is noted that between macronutrients, potassium accumulates in the most amount, followed by calcium and magnesium. For potassium, the average value was mg 100 g -1 F.W., with a minimum at V10 (22.77 mg 100 g -1 F.W.) and a maximum at V12 ( mg 100 g -1 F.W.). Calcium level was situated around mg 100 g -1 F.W. Note the minimum value for V10 (3.80 mg 100 g -1 F.W.) and maximum at V12 (22.80 mg 100 g -1 F.W.), a situation similar to that of potassium. Magnesium has also gained little from V10 (0.94 mg 100 g -1 F.W.) to a maximum recorded at V1 (6.91 mg 100 g -1 F.W.), while the average level was around 3.13 mg 100 g -1 F.W. 339 mg/100 g fresh fruit mg/100 g fresh fruit Fig. 5. Some macroelements levels in blueberries fruit For microelements situation was as follows: higher values for iron (average 0.34 mg 100 g -1 F.W.), followed by boron with a mean value of 0.16 mg 100 g - 1 F.W. and the manganese with an average of 0.14 mg 100 g -1 F.W. It should be noted that the lower accumulation of iron occurred in V10 (0.14 mg 100 g -1 F.W.) and the lowest value for manganese (0.03 mg Experimental variants 100 g -1 F.W) also. The maximum amount of iron in fruits was determined to V3 (0.73 mg 100 g -1 F.W). Variant V12 accumulated manganese at high values (0.34 mg 100 g -1 F.W.), also boron level was the highest (0.27 mg 100 g -1 F.W.). Maybe the specific mineral accumulation at V10 determined to cracked fruit also. K Ca Mg Fig. 6. Some microelements levels in blueberries fruit 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 Fe Mn B 0,2 0, Experimental variants Generally, our obtained results are in accordance with those cited by Dekazos (4) and expressed as mg 100 g -1 fresh fruit: K-74; Ca -4.1; Mg -3.6; Fe-0.14; Mn As regard the yield alone, the best effects were obtained for Sierra bushes grown in sawdust, but the chemical composition was better for berries from bushes grown in peat and cocoa husk (12). Also, as regard as fruit quality, Grajkowski et.al. (8) noticed that fruit harvested from bushes planted on peat had the highest antioxidant capacity, as compared with the lowest one for those planted on cocoa husk. Research performed by Heiberg and Lunde (9) to the effect of different ingredients in the container substrate on production to high-affinity bush highlighted the following: 35% mixture of pine bark resulted in the highest density of roots, accumulated production for 3 years was 3.26 kg/m 2 and average fruit weight was 1.77 g. It was found that the plants were very sensitive to the substrate and grew well in containers. Also, Moore (11) described the work necessary to adapt the cultural affinity with the bush high on mineral soils with low organic matter content and ph higher than optimal. 340 Conclusions The highest vegetative grown and the greatest positive effect on new branches grown was found for bushes grown on % peat: % manure, followed by those grown on % peat: % distillation residues, whereas the lowest when % peat: % sawdust was used. Clusters number, berries number in a cluster, also the fruit size varied and was substrate dependent. On % peat: % distillation residues bushes were vigorous without fruits, while on % peat: % manure bushes had many fruits. The biggest fruits were obtained from bushes grown on % peat: % manure: % distillation residues, while the smallest ones on: % peat: % manure: % sawdust: % litter. Large variations between different substrate mixtures concerning the content of nutrients have been determined, but the lower values there were registered for % peat: % sawdust. Also, our results emphasized the interrelation between substrates composition and minerals distribution in blueberry leaves and fruits, with a negative response as regard fructification mostly in the % peat: % sawdust, while % peat, % manure and % peat, % manure had a positive response. Acknowledgements The study was supported by the grant of the CEEX 757/2006. References 1. Bădescu, Gh Promising blueberry cultivars for commercial growing in Romania. Acta Horticulture, Vol. 165: Bădescu, C., Bădescu Cristina, Delian Elena, Bădescu Alexandra Research to improve blueberry multiplication technology by hardwood cuttings. Lucrări ştiinţifice, Seria B, Horticultură, Vol. LI: Bădescu, C., Bădescu Cristina, Delian Elena, Bădescu, A Productivity characteristics of 15-to 40-year old highbush blueberry, in Romanian submontaine areas. Acta Horticulturae, Vol.810: Dekazos, E.D Essential mineral elements in and quality evaluation of rabbiteye blueberry fruit. Proc.Fla.State Hort.Soc., Vol. 91: Doughty, E.B., Adams, E.B., martin, L.W Highbush blueberry production in Washington and Oregon. Washington State University, USA, pp Fira, Al., Clapa D., Bădescu, C Aspects regarding the in vitro propagation of highbush blueberry cultivar Bluecrop. Bulletin USAMV Cluj Napoca, Horticulture, Vol 61: Graciela Echeverria, V., Canumir, J., Humberto Serri, G Postharvest behavior of highbush blueberry fruits cv. O Neal cultivated with different organic fertilization treatments. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol.69: Grajkowski, J., Ochmian, I., Muliṅ ski, Z Firmness and antioxidant capacity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) grown on three types of organic bed. Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin, Vol. 66: Heiberg, N., Lunde, R Effect of growth media on highbush blueberries grown in pots. Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 715: Litwiṅ czuk, W., Wadas-Boron, M. Development of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hort.non L.) in vitro shoot cultures under the influence of melatonin. Acta Sci.Pol. Hortorum Cultus, Vol.8: Moore, J.N Adapting low organic upland mineral soil for culture of highbush blueberry. Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 346: Ochmian, I., Grajkowski, J., Skupieṅ,K Influenece of substrate on yiel
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks