Climate Change and Coffee- Banana systems Building climate- smart systems. Building Climate- Smart Systems Workshop - PDF

Climate Change and Coffee- Banana systems Building climate- smart systems Building Climate- Smart Systems Workshop Importance of coffee and bananas Coffee and Bananas Ugandan pillars Coffee biggest export

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Climate Change and Coffee- Banana systems Building climate- smart systems Building Climate- Smart Systems Workshop Importance of coffee and bananas Coffee and Bananas Ugandan pillars Coffee biggest export earner 300M USD/year Banana primary food crop Crops produced by smallholders Est. 80% of coffee farmers grow bananas Same algtude range (800m m) Coffee and Bananas Crops in crises Yields only 10-30% of potengal Pest and disease pressure Fusarium wilt (Robusta, exogc Bananas) Coffee berry disease Coffee leaf rust Banana bacterial wilt (BXW) Poor soil ferglity SubopGmal crop management Climate Change and Coffee- Banana systems A bright future? Coffee future: Banana future: Coffee market outlook is posigve Bananas important buffer in Ugandan agriculture Coffee demand - Asian growth Coffee labor costs go up in LaGn- America & Asia Africa: low labor costs and high yield gains possible! Building Climate- Smart Systems Workshop Permanent food producgon Less sensigve to short drought events than annuals Can be combined with coffee, beans, cocoyam, etc. the BAD NEWS: climate is changing temp increase 2 C - rainfall more Arabica currently 1400m m algtude Arabica 1800m m algtude why coffee suffers from climate change Coffee pests / diseases Coffee leaf rust increases with temperature COREC presentagon Coffee berry borer increases with temperature ICIPE study Other coffee pests - likely to increase Coffee quality Reduced cherry/bean size if temperature Reduced coffee quality if temperature Extreme events Coffee needs disgnct but short drought period to flower ErraGc drought affects flowering, bean size, and quality Heavy storms with hail can damage crop why BANANA suffers from climate change Banana pests / diseases Weevil- induced yield losses can increase from 10% to 25% at 1500m algtude (m) Weevil damage (average per site) R² = 0.67 Nematode Radophilis similis will become problem 1300m Sigatoka leaf disease will increase Weevil corm damage (XT %) is required We can change crops or move up Robusta Cocoa and/or Oil Palm Arabica Robusta Highland forest ( 2300m) Arabica 2300m 1400m 1000m sea level biophysical Robusta: no trend between yield (kg/ha) and algtude Arabica: no trend between yield (kg/ha) and algtude in Southwest. In East and Northwest, maximum yields at higher algtudes yield.per.ha Elevation biophysical vs. incidence of pests and diseases - Arabica East: example of mites South- West: example of leaf miners Elevation (m) Elevation(m) M.presence LM.presence is required Smallholder farming Unshaded monoculture Coffee banana intercrop Coffee tree system Coffee garden We can also adapt the coffee systems Mono- cropping is a colonial heritage Coffee in its original ecology is shaded Shading reduces temp. by 2-5 Celcius A range of producgve coffee shade systems exist - explore exisgng systems diversity Wild coffee Yields yield (kg/ha) : Arabica x banana Unshaded (Uganda) 2: Arabica x banana Shaded (Uganda) 3: Robusta x banana Shaded (Uganda) 4: Arabica monocrop Unshaded (Kenya) 5: Arabica monocrop Unshaded (Uganda) 6: Arabica monocrop Shaded (Uganda) 7: Robusta monocrop Shaded (Uganda) 11 Profitability 12 biophysical Shading no clear impact of number of shade trees / ha on yield (kg/ha) Impact of shading on incidence of pests and diseases is specific CLR incidence in East drops by 50% when intercropped with banana Central: Twig borer Central: Stem borer number of shade trees per ha (#/ha) number of shade trees /ha TB.presence 0 1 SB.presence socio- economic dimension for intercropping Arabica (n=12) Robusta (n=12) Extension (n=8) Managers (n=8) Sum (n=40) order 1. Cash and food from same land Banana provides shade Land scarcity Banana provides in situ mulch to manage becer Thicker coffee cherries Feed animals banana biomass for intercropping Low soil Lack of Unbelief through experience Bananas damage coffee Cultural socio- economic Incidence of shade trees on the surveyed farms - region specific! #$%&'(! #$%&! '()#*#+!! #$%&! #$%&! '()#*#+!,-./#((.+!!0+123!,-./#((.+!!0+123! '/3$+43!!5+$67-%#8! 9&+:);+! #7+!)+6+*+! '/3$+43!!5+$67-%#8! 9&+:);+! #7+!)+6+*+! 0%&#*#! =+((#+14-+! 03-#12+! -+12.&! #-%14%! 0%&#*#! =3-4#+! A32+! Diversity within regions socio- economic context Livestock owned by farmers Percentage of farmers buying external inputs = There is not one coffee farmer but a diversity of coffee farmers Increasing consumer demand for products which emit fewer GHG emissions Retailers, the private sector and cergficagon bodies start to address GHG emissions in coffee supply chains Retailers Certification bodies 17 Conclusions Shaded systems are more producgve/profitable for farmers Adding shade trees increases miggagon potengal of coffee systems Shaded coffee systems are more resilient to extreme weather event BUT there is an issue of sustainability Coffee systems need to be adapted to local biophysical and socio- economic condigons There is not one silver bullet solugon but opgmal choices based on the diverse livelihoods of coffee farmers how to achieve impact Value chain approach is good but not enough - look beyond coffee Link public and private sector for technology transfer Get the women on board impact Thank you Acknowledgements for supporgng our coffee research: LEAD- USAID Ministry of Economic affairs, agriculture and innovagon of the Netherlands abi- trust CIAT / CCAFS CIALCA Farmers and stakeholders along coffee value chain Science support from: Piet van Asten, Jan Verhagen, Africano Kangire, Ibrahim Wanyama, Ira Kristen, Don Jansen, Pascal Musoli, Godfrey Kagezi, Irene Koomen, Henk van Rikxoort, David Mukasa, Ghislaine Bongers, Nathan Urungi, Kenneth Abulu, Patrick Wetala, Patrick Kucel, Georgina Hakiza
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