CHILDREN OF HAÏTI: TWO YEARS AFTER. What is changing? Who is making the change? - PDF

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CHILDREN OF HAÏTI: TWO YEARS AFTER What is changing? Who is making the change? Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? 1 Foreword Sa ou plante se sa ou rekolte. What

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CHILDREN OF HAÏTI: TWO YEARS AFTER What is changing? Who is making the change? Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? 1 Foreword Sa ou plante se sa ou rekolte. What you sow is what you [will] harvest. Two years after the 12 January 2010 earthquake, the scars of disaster are still visible on the infrastructure, institutions and social systems of Haïti. They are also apparent on the bodies and in the minds of children, parents and caregivers. But as the second anniversary of this calamitous event (deemed the most destructive in recent decades) passes, there is also clear evidence of healing - and in some cases, of not just recovery, but meaningful and positive change that holds the key to realising the transformative agenda for children. Positively over 5 million cubic metres (about half) of the rubble, which once choked streets and alleys - has been cleared. Almost two thirds of the persons that once sheltered on both public and private land have moved out of overcrowded camps. The education system, still inadequate and overstretched, has managed (against all odds) to gather data on the number and status of schools, strengthen systems and, with strong political committment, expand access for more than 700,000 children. At the same time a large coalition of actors expanded protective services including sustainable interventions to better register, reunite and/or care for separated children. There is evidence of little victories everywhere, but serious gaps and inadequacies in Haïti s basic governance structures remain. The country, overall, remains a fragile state that requires strong and steadfast accompaniment to overcome the chronic poverty and under-development, deep rural and urban disparities and weak institutions that leave children vulnerable to shocks and the impact of disaster. UNICEF, in the last year of its transitional programme for earthquake recovery, continues to implement a mix of humanitarian relief, capacity development for institutional re-building and advocacy simultaneously, in order to address both acute and chronic challenges that prevent the realisation of child rights. In 2012, UNICEF will maximise its powerful convening role to leverage the partnerships and resources mobilised to tend the seeds of change that have already been planted, in solidarity with supporters around the world. Keeping children safe, healthy and learning is a mutual goal - one shared by parents, teachers, both private sector and public sector partners, religious organisations (including the voodoo community), the new government and other duty-bearers across the nation. It is also a goal shared by states in Haïti s close proximity and by individuals in countries far from the Caribbean Sea. A wide range of actors are working together to innovate, problem solve and generate momentum to enable these seeds to take a firm root and grow. Within this report, which targets both national and international partners, we reflect on the question: What is changing in Haïti? and Who is making the change? In addition to reviewing UNICEF s contribution to a selection of key results achieved since the earthquake, a special series of national partner portraits showcases some of our most dedicated champions for children - duty bearers that are making transformation a reality in their own way. Inspired by their commitment and words of encouragement, UNICEF renews its pledge in 2012 to accompany them and others like them, in their progressive realisation of child rights, through a transformative agenda. Each of us has a role to play. And in Haïti, it is a long term commitment. Françoise Gruloos-Ackermans Representative Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? 1 Executive Summary The outlook at the start of 2012 appears bright. Positive progress in the public sector is matched by optimistic forecasts for private sector investment, bringing a muchneeded boost to the local economy. However, more than 550,000 of the most vulnerable children, women and men continue to shelter in over 800 crowded displacement sites, despite an ever-increasing threat of eviction. The cholera epidemic also remains a pressing issue, following heavy rains in September and October which accelerated transmission patterns and led to localised outbreaks. The vulnerability of the population remains high, primarily as a result of stark gaps in the coverage of social services. Over the past two years, UNICEF Haïti made a significant contribution to the positive progress achieved in strengthening systems for delivery and regulation of social services for children. For example, in the Education sector, UNI- CEF supported both upstream planning and downstream delivery of material incentives to over 750,000 children, thereby diminishing the indirect costs that often serve as a significant barrier to education. At the same time, partnerships in the area of Child Protection strengthened the regulatory capacity of the government to protect thousands of vulnerable children in residential care. With UNICEF support, over 120,000 children enjoy structured play in one of the 520 Child Friendly Spaces and youth leaders have taken centre stage in some of the world s most highlevel forums. In support of child survival and healthy development, UNICEF ensured the expansion of facility-based nutrition services and promoted a shift towards community-based services as the primary delivery point for prevention and treatment. In Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), efforts by UNICEF and its partners emphasized the importance of sanitation on a national level. These efforts included the establishment of the first human waste disposal and treatment site for the metropolitan area, the role-out of community-led total sanitation approach and the formation of a National Alliance for WASH in schools. With support from UNICEF, the Ministry of Health at the departmental level also strengthened its capacity to respond to emergencies such as cholera. Experienced technical experts, strong operational capacity and the support of donors, based in-country and abroad enabled UNICEF s contribution to these achievements and substantive results for children. Over the two years following the earthquake, UNICEF mobilised more than US$ 351 million from more than 130 different sources, including National Committees, Governments and UNICEF Country Offices engaged in private sector fundraising. In 2012, UNICEF is requesting over US$ 24 million in its 2012 Consolidated Appeal to address immediate humanitarian needs associated with prolonged displacement, the cholera outbreak, and preparedness for the next hurricane season and the potential for other sudden-onset emergencies. UNICEF s regular country programme also requires an additional US$ 30 million to support longer-term activities that foster institutional reform, the reduction of disparities, promotion good governance, increased citizen participation and improved situation analysis, with a priority on Nutrition, Child Protection and Education. With an eye on the future, UNICEF is also integrating learning from past experience. The Independent Review of UNICEF s Operational Response to the January 2010 Earthquake in Haïti identified key internal, systemic factors that influenced - positively and negatively - UNICEF s collective response during the first three months. These findings have informed UNICEF s programmatic and operational planning and action at the country level. This has contributed to UNICEF s forward looking approach, sharpening the focus on long-term recovery and development, with a sustained application of lessons learned. 2 Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? Contents Situation Update 4 Top Three Misperceptions of the Situation in Haïti 5 Fast Facts on UNICEF Programme Delivery 6 What is Changing in Haïti and Who is Making the Change? 8 Education 8 Child Protection 10 Nutrition 12 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 14 Health 16 Participation and Preparedness 18 UNICEF Operational Commitments 20 Funding Overview 22 Looking Forward 24 Cluster Coordination in Ensuring Organisational Learning 26 UNICEF Partners and Supporters 27 Acronyms 28 Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? 3 Situation Update At the start of a new year, Haïti appears to be turning a corner. The country and its 4,316,000 children under 18, begin 2012 with a long-awaited new Government and national budget. New Ministers, including those critical to the survival and development of children, have been appointed, bringing much-needed energy and optimism to the scene. Reconstruction funding is slowly but surely being released by donors (an additional US$ 4 billion was released at the end of 2011 meaning that 43 per cent of pledges for this time period have been honoured). Complementing the progress in the public sector, a positive business forum at the end of 2011 promised an even greater boost for the local economy, with over US$ 8 billion dollars of investment pledged by foreign firms and investors. At first glance, the outlook is positive. Of course, the impact of the January 2010 earthquake remains highly visible on both infrastructure and social systems in the country. From a peak of over 1.6 million displaced persons, more than 550,000 individuals still shelter in over 800 different displacement sites across the earthquake-affected area, representing not just a challenge to relief and recovery - but an urgent call to address deeper, more complex issues of urban homelessness, marginalisation and the need for more comprehensive social protection systems. IOM displacement tracking indicates that the camp population decreased by 63 per cent in one year - but this is a slower pace of return than that noted in 2010, due to the elevated vulnerability of those left behind. Some 77 per cent were renters before the earthquake, meaning most have no home to return to. Providing a dangerous push factor, IOM has noted that the number of camps under threat of eviction tripled in As a result more than 100,500 individuals live everyday with the fear of being kicked out of their shelter. There is also a worrisome concentration of people living in 61 large camps thus elevating public health risks and underlining the need for continuing emergency services in the short term. Despite an overall downward trend in the cholera epidemic, heavy rains in September and October triggered outbreaks across the country, particularly in the North, South, and Nippes Departments, and in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. As of 8 November, the MSPP reported 496,337 cases of cholera and 6,797 deaths attributed to cholera, with an overall observed case fatality rate of 1.4 per cent. This remains above the epidemic threshold of 1 per cent set by the WHO - but has significantly decreased from the 7 per cent observed during the early months, indicating a positive trend of increased access and quality of services. The challenge now is to mainstream cholera prevention and treatment programmes within the overall public health system; adapt policies, protocols and training programmes as well as expand incentives that can encourage retention of staff mobilised during the emergency. In water and sanitation, actors are shifting focus from subsidization of chlorination campaigns towards addressing stark gaps in both the coverage of WASH services and in the knowledge and behaviour of communities. In every sector, there are efforts to pursue more proactive, rather than reactive, responses that anticipate the seasonal resurgence of the disease in the future. Further complicating matters, two hurricanes narrowly missed Haïti this year (Irene and Emily in August) but heavy rains from both storms led to localised flooding and landslides that required small-scale evacuations. Both responses were led by local authorities including the National Emergency Operational Centre (COUN) and emergency coordination units in affected departments. Although national capacity for emergency response appears to be increasing, threats on the horizon (including the next hurricane season and possible further increases in food prices) are many in 2012, and Haïti will continue to require international assistance to meet the special needs of children in humanitarian action. UNICEF/Haiti2010/Dormino 4 Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? Top Three Misperceptions of the Situation in Haïti The reconstruction process is stalled. Haïti has too many structural issues to truly recover from disaster. Rebuilding Haïti is by no means an easy task. But significant progress has been made by committed national and international stakeholders from both the public and private sectors. According to a World Bank report released in 2011, Haïti s GDP growth was reported at per cent in 2010 but this is expected to rise, when considering newly approved debt relief measures; infrastructure contracts and trade agreements. Not only is half of the rubble cleared (a massive accomplishment), but with support from the Inter-American Development Bank, the European Union, the World Bank, France, Canada, Taiwan and other donors, the Ministry of Public Works is carrying out more than 100 projects on primary, secondary and tertiary roads. Other on-going projects include a US$ 250 million airport reconstruction; a US$ 40 million deep water port; a US$ 40 million project to expand housing and a large scale initiative to modernise energy grid (which alone will create an additional 80,000 jobs). At the Invest in Haïti forum held in November 2011, President Martelly also announced the construction of an Industrial Park. The park s first tenant, pledged to invest an additional US$ 78 million in an apparel and textile plant. Reconstruction of Haïti is not stalled. It is in full force. UNICEF/Haiti2011/Dormino Billions of dollars were given last year. Haïti s government can t absorb any more money. It s unfortunate, but the reality is that the majority of relief and recovery assistance to Haïti has actually side-tracked national budgets completely. The Office of the Special Envoy reports that only 1 per cent of relief assistance in 2010 was provided directly to the Government of Haïti- and less than 12 per cent of recovery assistance was channelled directly to government using national systems. This form of assistance can actually erode national capacity instead of build it. UNICEF s mandate is to support the Government to uphold their obligations to protect and promote child rights in country. Our assistance is therefore pledged against national frameworks, in line with national priorities and includes direct financial assistance to central and departmental level authorities, in order to address specific needs of children in our negotiated country programme. Haitian institutions cannot address the needs of children and other vulnerable groups unless money flows through them. There are too many actors in Haïti, with no coordination or government oversight. It is true that the majority of social services in Haïti are delivered by non-government actors including religious organisations, for-profit businesses and NGOs - many of them having a long-term presence in the country. It is also true that hundreds of new NGOs entered the country after the earthquake, bringing much needed financial, technical and material resources for relief and recovery. In the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake the Cluster Approach provided coordination and information management support to the government, in order to leverage available resources in each sector towards the most urgent of needs. Now, as Haïti moves into a period of recovery and development, UNICEF is supporting the process of Cluster transition, which includes efforts to enhance the regulatory capacity of government, their ability to independently coordinate international actors and manage key emergency information management tools. Nationally-led coordination forums (called Tables Sectorielles) have been revived, and are now leading the way in terms of policy development, standards setting and prioritisation of action. Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? 5 Fast facts on UNICEF Programme Delivery Education UNICEF/Haiti2011/Dormino More than 80,000 children are now learning in 193 semi-permanent schools constructed by UNICEF since the earthquake Some 750,000 children and more than 15,000 teachers in 2,500 schools received learning and teaching materials in support of the October 2011 Back-To-School campaign and President Martelly s initiative for free education 1,497,900 children in 5,760 schools received hygiene promotion materials including soap to protect against cholera 500 teachers in rural public schools were trained in methods for preschool teaching and 360 education personnel countrywide were trained on Education in Emergency and Disaster Risk Reduction Local Education Ministries in all ten departments have contingency plans endorsed by the Department of Civil Protection to better prepare and respond to emergencies Child protection Over 120,000 children in nine departments benefit from structured activities and referral networks in 520 Child Friendly Spaces managed by 92 different community-based organisations supported by UNICEF All ten departments equipped with psychosocial rehabilitation services specialised in emergency response 8,780 separated children have been registered and over 2,770 reunified with their families since the earthquake, thanks to the support of UNICEF and the Family Tracing and Reunification network An additional 13,440 children living in 336 of the estimated 650 residential care centres have been registered to provide social documentation, improved case management and family reunification where possible 336 residential care centers have been evaluated with standardized tools - and a directory of all Residential Care Centres has been launched by IBESR, with UNICEF support 18,000 children were screened at border points and airports since the earthquake, by a division of the national police supported by UNICEF The Government of Haïti signed the Hague Convention on Inter-Country Adoption in 2011, following targeted advocacy UNICEF/Haiti2011/Dormino 6 Children of Haiti: Two Years After What is changing? Who is making the change? Nutrition UNICEF/Haiti2011/Dormino Some 393,000 children screened and over 15,300 treated for acute mal nutrition in 2011 in one of the 290 out-patient treatment units and/or 24 Nutrition Stabilisation Units (which address malnourished children with complications). A recovery rate of 76 per cent and mortality rate under 2 per cent in patients indicates good quality of service Some 500,000 mother and baby pairs were provided with nutrition counselling and breastfeeding coaching in the 198 Baby-Friendly Corners established and maintained since the earthquake. Meanwhile, 40 Infant and Young Child Feeding committees and mothers clubs were created Over 500,000 women received iron-folic acid tablets in 2011 to prevent anaemia Over 775 health professionals and healthcare providers trained in Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Health Some 800 HIV positive pregnant women gained access to Prevention of Mother-to- Child Transmission (PMTCT) services as UNICEF supported the establishment of 11 new PMTCT sites in under-served areas 149,000 pregnant women tested for HIV; 3,000 tested HIV positive and 1,875 pregnant women with HIV placed on antiretroviral treatment with UNICEF support More than 15,000 vulnerable adolescents in Port-au-Prince were sensitised on HIV prevention and 2,500 adolescents tested for HIV and 522 placed on antiretroviral treatment UNICEF supported 37 trainers and 115 service provide
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