Business Plan The Concept Biogas Brålanda - PDF

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Business Plan The Concept Biogas Brålanda The concept Biogas Brålanda 1. Executive summary Until recently, studies and discussions about biogas production in Västra Götaland region and in Sweden as a whole

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Business Plan The Concept Biogas Brålanda The concept Biogas Brålanda 1. Executive summary Until recently, studies and discussions about biogas production in Västra Götaland region and in Sweden as a whole have been based on large-scale biogas plants that depend upon transporting substrate with trucks or tractors to the plant (digester) and the residue back to the farms. This has proved very difficult to be profitable. The Biogas Brålanda concept is about creating a system that connects small farm-based biogas plants into a system so that larger amounts of energy can be produced. Connecting smaller farms holdings by an infrastructure system is an innovation in biogas production. This concept replaces the need for transportation of digestate to the plant, as well as residues from the plant, and transports raw gas through a pipeline grid which in total has positive implications for the environment. 2. Innovative idea Biogas Brålanda demonstrates a new and innovative way to achieve the economic benefits of a large-scale plant while maintaining the benefits of small-scale operations. Through the construction of an infrastructure system consisting of a gas grid, measuring equipment, biogas dryers, upgrading station and filling stations vehicle fuel can be produced from manure more effectively both from an environmental and transportation perspective than previously seen in Sweden or internationally. Instead of transporting substrate by vehicles to large digester plants, gas can be transported in a gas grid. Lesser quantities of gas can be gathered in an environmentally and energy effective manner to a gas grid and provide in total a large amount of gas. That means that small-scale biogas production at the farm level placed in a grid system can achieve the same economic benefits of a large-scale operation while maintaining the benefits of the small-scale operations. The system can also grow as new anaerobic digestion plants are connected. 3. SSCM analysis The SSCM Analysis of the concept Biogas Brålanda is shown in Table 1 and 2. The analysis in the matrix has been seen as living material which is continuously being worked on. The value-chain for Biogas Brålanda begins with substrate and ends with the market for vehicle fuel. The SSCM analysis addresses the various stages in the value chain by examining what improvements and what enablers are needed for these improvements. Even questions related to risk within the various areas have been addressed. In the economics section these risks have been highlighted via simulation of various changes in parameters, see point 4. The business case 4..1 Operational Process The operational process shown in figure 1 is simplified. From the farmers own digesting plant can the raw gas produced be channeled via local grid pipelines to a main stem that then leads to an upgrading station. A gas dyer, measuring equipment and an apparatus for increasing pressure is placed between the digesting plant and the main stem pipeline. After the raw gas reaches the central upgrading station, the raw gas is transformed to vehicle fuel which then continues through the main stem pipeline out to the filling stations and/or user. Figure 1 The Biogas Brålanda concept covers the entire value chain from manure to vehicle fuel. Because of this, the question becomes whether or not the amount of investment needed to make the price of the final product competitive with other vehicle fuels can still give enough return on investment. As it was initially apparent that the concept probably needed more commercial actors to cover the entire value chain a spreadsheet program was developed to calculate whether a competitive final price generated a sufficiently high internal rate of return (IRR) for the project. The spreadsheet is described in more detail by a report available on Innovatum s webpage 1. 1) Link to Innovatum webpage: ing%20biogastillämpningar% pdf Table 1 Sustainability indicator Farmers Manure Energy crops Organic waste Transportation of feedstock Biogas Plant Type Livestock farmers, crop farmers Liquid and solid manure from beef, pig and poultry. Clover and grass ley, maize, sugar beats, artichoke, whole grain seed, hemp. Straw, tops from potatoes, peas and sugar beats, poor silage, chaff, household waste, slaughterhouse residues. Pipes: Manure and liquid waste. Trucks:Dry substrate. Wet digestion Dry digestion Targets Environmental Aspect Social Aspect Main Existing or Potential Barriers Possible Enablers Possible Economic Benefits Possible Technological Benefits production of biogas amongst farmers. Farmers producing biogas for sale and for tractor fuel. Reduce methane emissions from manure. Produce own fertilizer in a natural cycle. Produce environmentally friendly fuel. Poor knowledge about biogas amongst farmers leads to less willing to take risks (want economic security). Poor knowledge, new and unknown enterprise, few demonstration plants or farm plants to get inspiration from. Workshops, information etc in order to improve technical knowledge. Calculations showing what conditions are needed for profitable biogas production. Make money, business plans, new income source, economic security, new funding opportunities. Calculation tool. More biogas plants as demonstrations objects. Production of biogas from manure in Fyrbodal. potential of manure. Odors Low energy exchange, large volumes, geographically long distances between farms. Survey of manure potential in Fyrbodal and where the farms are situated and how to get an efficient collection of manure. New income sourse. Support for climate benefits. Develop technology for pumping manure long distance and composition of manure. potential for energy crops for digestion. Grow energy crops for biogas production. Energy crops reduce the need of fertilizer since the nutrition in the crop is recycled to the soil through the residues. Survey of organic waste potential in Fyrbodal. potential of organic waste for digestion. The raw material exists and through digestion energy is produced and the residues gives a supplement of plant nutrition. Pipes: Improved knowledge about pumping manure/liquid waste long distance (up to 5 km) in pipes in the ground. Reduce traffic on roads. Develop effective pretreatment of the substrate before pumping. Efficient laying procedure of grids. Pipes: No fossil fuel consumption. Pipes: Reduced traffic on roads which leads to less traffic noise. Production cost Limited access Poor knowledge about pumping manure/liquid waste in long pipes. Few demonstration plants. Survey of potential area for energy crops in Fyrbodal. More efficient production of energy crops. Growing nitrogen fixation crops gives self produced nitrogen. More efficient logistics. Higher price. State support for growing energy crop. Pretreatment of straw products for better exploitation of Survey of organic waste potential in Fyrbodal. Increased gas exchange. Increased plant nutrition access. Reception and processing fee. Efficient sanitation. Pretreatment of straw products for a better exploitation of Develop technplogy for pumping manure/liquid waste long distance in pipes in the ground. Lower cost. Investment support. Pumping technology for manure and liquid waste. mixing substrates for digestion. Improve the organic load in the digester. Shorten residence time of the substrate in the digester. Smaller and more energy efficient biogas plants. Accessible service. More demonstrations plants. Converts the substrate to high energy methane gas and, for the plants, readily available nutrition which replace commercial fertilizer.. High investment cost. High energy cost. Technology is not suited for smaller biogas plants. Few demonstration plants. Developing energy efficient turn-key Swedish-made biogas plants. Establish service chains in Sweden. Advice and research. Calculation tools. New forms of financing. Investment support. Efficient heat exchanger, heat pump, sanitisation of biogas plants on farm level. Digestion of dry substrate. Level units Numbers of participating farmers. Ton hectare Ton Km Euro/kWh Indicator Farmers who want to produce Ton manure available för digestion. Numbers of hectares for potential energy crop with regard to feed and food production. Ton organic waste available for biogas production. Distance for transportation of feedstock. Production cost Stakeholders Biogas Dalsland (co-operative of farmers) Project advisory service (Innovatum) Farm enterprises Advisory sevice companies Project advisory service (Innovatum) Farm enterprises Advisory service companies Project advisory service (Innovatum) Farm enterprises, Advisory service companies, Board of Agriculture, County Board, Local municipalities, Organic farming organization, project advisory service (Innovatum) Farm enterprises. Equipment suppliers, machine stations, contractors for laying grids, transport companies, County Board, local municipalities, landowners, Land Survey Board, service companies, project advisory service (Innovatum). Farm eterprises, equipment suppliers, contractors for laying grids, Board of Agriculture, County Board, local municipalities, service companies, project advisory service (Innovatum). Table 2 Sustainability indicator Distribution and use of residues Type Liquid residues in pipes. Gas grid Waterscrubber, membrane technique, cryogenic upgrading Targets Environmental Aspect Social Aspect Main Existing or Potential Barriers Possible Enablers Possible Economic Benefits Possible Technological Benefits Pumping the residues from biogas plant to the field. Maximum utilization of plant nutrients in the residues. Better utilization of nitrogen in the manure. Increased availibility of plant nutrients. Less nitrogen leaching to watercourses from digested manure and residues. Reduced odors. Not permitted to use digested slaughterhouse residues as fertilizer in organic farming. High investement cost. Influence EU- legislators to change regulations about what is permitted in organic farming. Separation of the residue if it is to be transported long distances. Efficient and energy-saving distribution. Increased nutrient availability. Lower distribution cost. Investment support. Lower dry matter content. More efficient distribution technique. Distribution of biogas Upgrading Plant Fuel stations Vehicles Market pumping gas in grids. Efficient laying procedure of the gas grid. More efficient drying of the gas. Energy efficient compressors. Joint laying of the gas grid with other infrastructure. Fossil free transport of gas in grid (instead of transport on roads). High investment costs. Few demonstrations plants. No established infrastructure for distribution. Lack of risk capital. More efficient laying procedure of the gas grid. Inventory of infrastructure investments for pipelines in Fyrbodal. Establishing cooperation with other infrastructure investments for pipelines. Support for the establishment of new infrastructure. More efficient drying equipment designed for smaller plants. Energy-efficient compressors and fans. Several joint large-scale upgrades in grids. Several small upgrades at the farm level. Several Cryogenics upgrades. Reduced methane emissions at the plant. Small upgrading plants have too high investment and operating costs. Cryogenic upgrading gives liquid methane, liquid carbon dioxide. Lower price. Investment support. Energy efficient plants. Smaller plants. Compressed gas, liquid methane. More fuel stations for More fuel stations for heavy vehicles. More fuel stations with liquid methane. More smaller fuel stations for locations with limited amount of vehicles. The most environmentally friendly vehicle fuel. Reduces greenhouse gas emissions by % compared to petrol and diesel. Fuel stations should be built easily accessible, with good service range. High investment cost. No existing fuel stations for liquid methane. Few fuel stations for heavy vehichles. Develop less expensive fuel stations, smaller fuel stations and fuel stations for liquid methane. Passenger cars, vans, buses, trucks, construction machinery, tractors, service vehicles at airports and other logistics center. More passenger cars, vans, trucks and buses driven by The most environmentally friendly vehicle fuel. Reduces greeenhouse gas emissions by % compared to petrol and diesel. Quieter engines. Very limited selection of vans, buses and heavy vehicles driven on Availability of Development of heavy vehicles and buses with Duel-Fuel technology. Joint procurements to get manufacturers to develop more vehicles driven on Individuals, business cars, companies, public service, bus companies, distribution companies, taxi All vehicles in public sector in Fyrbodal shall use biogas as fuel. The most environmentally friendly vehicle fuel. Reduces greenhouse gas emissions by % compared to petrol and diesel. Too small production volume of Poor knowledge on biogas and its advantages. Information about biogas, workshops, joint procurements, Accessible stations with good service. User-friendly vehicles with long range. No CO2-tax or energy tax. Availability of No CO2-tax or energy tax. Reduced benefit value for company cars. Not more expensive than fossil fuels. Small fuel stations of about m3/year. Technology for fuel stations for liquid methane. Smaller engines with higher efficiency. Duel fuel engines for heavy vehicles and buses. Lighter tanks for Service friendly. More easily used tank nozzles. Faster refueling of heavy vehicles. Service friendly. Level units Hectare m3/meters m3 Pieces Pieces, Gram CO 2/km CO 2-equivalent Indicator Access to distribution area. Numbers of m3/meter grid Numbers of m3 upgraded Numbers of fuel stations. Numbers of sold vehicles. Emissions Reduces of greenhouse gas emissions Stakeholders Farm enterprises,equipment suppliers, contractors for laying grids, Board of Agriculture, County Board, local municipalities, landowners, Land Servey Board, project advisory service (Innovatum). Grid company (Nätaktiebolaget Biogas Brålanda), equipment suppliers, contractors for laying grids, County Board, local municipalities, landowners, Land Servey Board, service companies, project advisory service (Innovatum) Operating company (Biogas Brålanda AB), equipment suppliers, contractors for laying grids, County Board, local municipalities, service companies, project advisory (Innovatum). Energy companies, operating companies (Biogas Brålanda AB), equipment suppliers, contractors for laying grids, County Board, local municipalities, service companies, project advisory service (Innovatum). Manufacturers, buyers and sellers of vehicles. Conversion companies, service companies, project advisory service (Innovatum). Individuals Companies Public sector, Project advisory service (Innovatum) The value chain is divided into different modules for which investment requirements, operating and maintenance costs are specified. The different modules are: digestion plants, local gas pipelines, measuring equipment, gas dryers, instruments for pressure elevation, grid lines (raw gas in - vehicle fuel out), upgrade facilities and filling stations. By linking all the modules in the value chain and summing up the needs for investment, operation and maintenance costs it was possible to estimate the price of the vehicle fuel required to achieve a certain IRR. The calculation model also calculated the input and retail price for each module, Figure 2, which was required to achieve the desired IRR for the module. When the calculations yielded returns / IRR from each module that was put in and thus a selling price per Nm 3 of methane gas could be seen, it became a good basis for discussions / negotiations between stakeholders. The Biogas Brålanda concept concentrated on making it possible for the resulting surplus to be distributed in proportion to capital invested and at the level of risk this was happening. Gödsel in Inpris Inpris Inpris Inpris Modul L Modul 1 Modul i Modul (i+1) Modul 6 Utpris Utpris Utpris Utpris Figure Organizational Structure When it became evident that a satisfactory internal rate with a competitive retail price to consumers could be achieved, a discussion began around how the different modules would be shared among stakeholders. The result of these discussions was the forming of an economic association by farmers who would be owners of the digestion plants on the different farms. As well another company was formed, a network/grid company, to take charge of the gas pipelines, measures equipment solutions, biogas wiper and instruments for pressure elevation. In addition, a third company, an operating/service company, was formed to take care of the upgrading plant and distribution facilities. When it was concluded how the value chain could be organized into companies and the total deal could be prosperous, negotiations over the economic agreements of the forming companies began. Due to the fact that the value chain consisted of different modules with their investment needs, operation and maintenance costs it was possible with the help of the spreadsheet model to calculate how the final price could be distributed between the modules. If the various companies worked with different risks it would be possible to take this into account in the calculation model by setting a risk associated with internal rate per module. However, it would be limited to the fact that the final price was determined. The negotiations resulted in the organization structure shown in Figure 3. Figure. 3 The organizational structure of Biogas Brålanda, seen in Figure 3, contains three companies: Biogas Dalsland Economic Association, Nätbolaget AB and Biogas Brålanda AB. Biogas Dalsland represents farmers who supply the raw gas to the grid. Nätbolaget AB is owned by the municipalities of Vänersborg (73 %) and Mellerud (18 %) as well as Biogas Brålanda AB (9 %). Biogas Brålanda AB is two thirds partowned by Trollhättan Energy AB and the remaining third by Biogas Dalsland. With this structure we can see that the farmers through Biogas Dalsland Economic Association have a direct or indirect ownership in all companies. It was an approach from the beginning of the project Biogas Brålanda that farmers would participate in the business opportunities in a greater capacity than just delivering raw gas. The different farmers have supply agreements for their produced raw gas with Biogas Dalsland Economic Association which in turn has a supply agreement for the farmer's raw gas with Biogas Brålanda AB. Biogas Brålanda AB hires local gas pipelines, measuring equipment, gas dryers, appliances for pressure increase and the grid pipelines from Nätbolaget AB. Biogas Brålanda AB upgrades the raw gas in its upgrading plant and then distributes the vehicle fuel to filling stations or other outside parties. 4.3 Financial Plan Pre-requisites for Calculation The calculations span over 20 years and are made at current price levels with an assumed price and cost inflation of 2% per year. As a prerequisite for the calculation estimates, a hypothetical sale price of the vehicle fuel been used. With this sale price as a starting point, the IRR has then been calculated for investments including the farmers own companies. This IRR has then been applied to the different modules in order to determine the input and output prices between modules, Figure 2. This is to see which inputs and output prices you get if all the modules provide the same return. Depending on the different levels of risk for the different modules the IRR can, within the context of the overall internal rate of return, be divided between the different modules. It should be noted that the following figures on investment, revenues, expenses and profitability is not a final costing and only shows the size of these at a certain stage in the project Biogas Brålanda. The commercialization of the project Biogas Brålanda is currently ongoing by the three formed c
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