Annual Report Editors: Raija Halkilahti, Arja Hänninen, Mika Ilvesmäki, Jouni Karvo - PDF

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Teknillisen korkeakoulun tietoverkkolaboratorion julkaisuja Espoo 2004 Annual Report 2003 Editors: Raija Halkilahti, Arja Hänninen, Mika Ilvesmäki, Jouni Karvo Helsinki University of Technology Department

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Teknillisen korkeakoulun tietoverkkolaboratorion julkaisuja Espoo 2004 Annual Report 2003 Editors: Raija Halkilahti, Arja Hänninen, Mika Ilvesmäki, Jouni Karvo Helsinki University of Technology Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering Networking Laboratory Teknillinen korkeakoulu Sähkö- ja tietoliikennetekniikan osasto Tietoverkkolaboratorio Distribution: Helsinki University of Technology Networking Laboratory P.O.Box 3000 FIN HUT Tel Fax c 2003 Teknillinen korkeakoulu, Tietoverkkolaboratorio Picaset Oy Helsinki 2004 ABSTRACT The research and teaching area of the Networking laboratory focuses on communication networks, in particular on layer 3 but also including upper layer issues, and on teletraffic theory. Currently the central research problem of the field is leveraging the Internet into a service network. This requires providing Quality of Service to data transfer with new protocols, improved security features and easy-to-use service platforms. The teaching curriculum of the Networking laboratory includes three major subjects: Networking Tecnology,Teletraffic Theory and Telecommunications Management. Under these subjects we run courses on IP technology, circuit-switched networking, teletraffic theory and on service and protocol development. At the beginning of the year D.Sc (Tech) Heikki Hämmäinen joined the Laboratory as a professor with a focus on the area of Networking Business. During the year professor Hämmäinen widened teaching in the area of Networking business or Telecommunications Management by a Ph.D seminar and a special Assignment on Networking Business. In 2003 we started the Networking Technology major in the International Master s programme in Telecommunications. This has meant that an increasing share of our courses is already taught in English on the master s level. In 2003, the laboratory staff published 4 international journal papers and 14 papers in conferences. In 2003, two Doctor dissertations and 60 M.Sc theses were achieved by the students of our laboratory. The number of Master theses is an all time record in the history of the Laboratory. In May 2003, the Networking Laboratory hosted a Joint Research Seminar with our sister Laboratory at Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH). In 2003, the laboratory carried on research in several multi-year research projects. The biggest was the Intelligent Routing Network project, one of the NETS spear head projects funded by TEKES and a group of partners with a three year plan. Our wide research project activity is seen in the financing structure in which the share of MinEdu financing has dropped to 38% of the overall budget and in the large number of M.Sc theses that were completed in the Netlab research projects (14). ANNUAL REPORT 2 ANNUAL REPORT 2003 CONTENTS Abstract 1 Contents 3 1 Introduction Motivation of Networking Business activities International Activities Social impact of our Activities Summary Personnel ProfessorsandDocents Administrativepersonnel,teachersandassistants SeniorResearchersandresearchers Researchassistantsandtrainees Part-timeteachers Research projects AHRAS COST FIT: Future Internet Traffic Handling and Performance Analysis FUNET IRoNet IntelligentRoutingNetwork MobileMAN NAPS Optical Access Networking (OAN) TIEVA Teaching General notes on teaching in Coursedescriptions Theses DoctorofTechnology MastersofScience Activities Participationinconferencesandmeetings Academic activities Visitsabroad Foreign visitors in Participation in boards and committees Universityboardsandcommittees Otherboardsandcommittees Referee activities Publications 37 ANNUAL REPORT 4 ANNUAL REPORT 2003 1 INTRODUCTION Year 2003 was one in a series of strengthening the Networking Laboratory as a research unit. We worked on a large portfolio of projects among which IRoNet, a spear head project in the TEKES NETS program and TIEVA were the largest. We launched a new area of research, Networking Business when a new professor, Dr. Heikki Hämmäinen took his post on January 1st. Professor Hämmäinen initiated a research group and started teaching the subject. Two new projects were initiated during NAPS is funded by the Finnish Academy and works on traffic management in Ad hoc Networks. The second new project is funded by the Defence Forces (LATE). We admitted the first intake of International students into the Networking technology major for the Fall term of The major is an extension of the Master s programme in Telecommunications at HUT. Many researchers of the Laboratory earned academic degrees, including the degrees of the Doctor of Science in Technology by Jorma Hirvensalo and Petteri Mannersalo. The number of M.Sc theses earned by our students in 2003 was 60 which is the largest number in the 60 years the Laboratory has existed. (One of the theses was recorded and reported already in 2002, but the real record is now 60). For three and a half professor man-years during 2003 the number of supervised M.Sc theses continues to be excessively high compared to the HUT average of less than 5 theses per professor. We expect a high workload on supervising M.Sc theses during the coming years to continue. This situation can be corrected in two ways: by hiring new professors and by lowering the intake of students into our major subjects. We believe that both methods need to be used. However, the impact of the lower intake into the degree program on telecommunications over the past couple of years will make a difference only in about five years. One of our Ph.D students was awarded a new position in the GETA graduate school. Overall the number of Ph.D students in the Laboratory is high. The positive development in project financed research activities is also visible in the Laboratory spending presented in Figures 1.1 and 1.2. Figure 1.1 shows the diversity of sources of research funding and Figure 1.2 the overall development for the past few years. In addition to the basic government budget, the government directed Academy of Finland and TEKES are the largest sources for research funding. The Laboratory had a development day of teaching in Allergiatalo, Helsinki. There were two social events during the year: a summer trip and the traditional Christmas party, this time in the Clubhouse of the Soukka Sailing Club. ANNUAL REPORT Funding sources for Networking laboratory 2003 EU financing 2 % Finnish Companies Finnish Academy 1% 8% Other 15 % HUT budget 38 % Tekes 36 % Figure 1.1: Financing of the Networking Laboratory 2003 Networking laboratory funding HUT funding Projects year Figure 1.2: Financing of the Networking Laboratory ANNUAL REPORT 2003 1.1 Motivation of Networking Business activities When we invited D.Sc (Tech) Hämmäinen to join the Laboratory as a professor in the area of Networking Business, our reasoning was based not only on the apparent popularity of the Telecommunications Management major and the continued need for specialists in this area in the industry. Looking at the history of the development of Communications Technologies over the past 20 years we can see many technologies that have greatly under-performed on the markets to the expectations that were placed on them at the inception of the technology. At the same time the amount of R&D man-years that need to be invested prior to bringing a new communications technology to the market is not decreasing. When technology becomes more and more powerful the horizons of technical feasibility move farther and farther away from what we use today. However, it seems that performance and even cost of a technology play a lesser and lesser role in the success of a solution of the technology. Market forces and the structure of the value chain in the industry seem to take a bigger and bigger role. The brightest stars among the communications technologies of the past 20 years have been surprises to a large portion of the industry. We can even claim that the success or failure of a technology seems to be impossible to predict with any degree of reliability. With this background we think that it is important to start looking at the business side of a new technology earlier than before. The business analysis should start when the communications technology is on the drawing boards in the research labs. By initiating a new professorship in the area of Networking Business we intend to achieve a cross-fertilization of the technology research and provide early input to the Business studies while companies have not yet made huge R&D investments into a new technology. 1.2 International Activities In the Fall of 2003, we received the first intake of international students in the Networking technology major that is now a part of the International Master s program in Telecommunications. The total number of credit units we teach in English is now more than 30 out of the total of about 53 for the year (not including individual assignments and labworks). The courses that are taught in English include nearly all Ph.D level courses and seminars as well as the Master s level courses that are needed in the International Major. In addition, in 2003, already 80 percent of the Master s theses that were supervised by our professors, were written in English. During 2003, we joined the EuroNGI Network of Excellence that is a European Research Community in the area of teletraffic theory and performance analysis. We also participated in creating the E-Next NoE and joined the Consortium when it started in January E-Next is focused on Networking Technology. There we received 29 foreign visitor to our laboratory, including the group of staff from our sister Laboratory at KTH led by professor Gunnar Karlsson. On May 23rd we had a one day seminar on topics of ongoing research in our laboratories followed by a dinner at Kappeli. Seminars like ANNUAL REPORT this, alternately at HUT and KTH, have already become a tradition. 1.3 Social impact of our Activities According to the new University law the Universities are assigned the so called third task in parallel with Research and Higher Education. The task is to contribute the development of welfare and the society at large. Naturally, we contribute most through our research. However, during 2003 we were active in other ways as well. Through articles in Finnish Journals and Newspapers (Talouselämä and Helsingin Sanomat) we participated in discussion about the state of the Information Society as well as the question of broadband to the home. The latter topic is closely related to our research on Quality of Service because the deployment of QoS in IP networks happens only if a wide range of applications run on the networks and that is dependent on the wide adoption of broadband services in society at large. The preprints of the articles can by found in kantola/list of my writings.html During the year, I participated in the core IP networking interest area thematic group in the TEKES NETS program. Our goal is to smooth the way for our research results down the innovation chain and to bring people from the academia and the companies closer together to work on goals of mutual interest in the NETS framework. The topic of interest during the year was peer-to-peer traffic and its impact on the underlaying IP -network. The Group organized a workshop on Peer-to-peer in Dipoli in November that I chaired. 1.4 Summary We finish the year with positive expectation of the future in terms of our national and international impact, the number and level of the degrees earned by our students and continued managed expansion of our research activity. A rather wide research activity is crucial for maintaining a wide portfolio of in-depth courses on the M.Sc and postgraduate curricula in networking, teletraffic theory, protocols and services and network economics. It is also crucial for solving the problem of the lack of teachers we continue to have. May 21st, 2004 Raimo Kantola 8 ANNUAL REPORT 2003 2 PERSONNEL 2003 Laboratory staff and personnel can be reached by with address: 2.1 Professors and Docents Aalto, Samuli Ph.D., Professor (pro tem ) Hämmäinen, Heikki D.Sc. (Tech.), professor Jormakka, Jorma Ph.D., Professor Kantola, Raimo D.Sc. (Tech.), Professor, head of laboratory Virtamo, Jorma D.Sc. (Tech.), Professor (on leave ) Chakraborty, Shyam D.Sc. (Tech.), Docent Kilkki, Kalevi D.Sc. (Tech.), Docent Pirinen, Aulis Ph.D., Docent Raatikainen, Pertti D.Sc. (Tech.), Docent Rahko, Kauko D.Sc. (Tech.), Professor emeritus 2.2 Administrative personnel, teachers and assistants Erke, Tapio Hänninen, Arja Koivisto, Johanna Kosonen, Vesa Matinlauri, Anni Nupponen, Esko Pitkäniemi, Kimmo Patana, Sanna Planman, Irma M.Sc., Laboratory engineer, on leave Administrative assistant Student adviser M.Sc., university teacher Student adviser Senior laboratory supervisor PC support Department secretary Department secretary 2.3 Senior Researchers and researchers Aalto, Samuli Karvo, Jouni Kuusela, Pirkko Lassila, Pasi Zhang, Peng Ph.D. D.Sc. (Tech.) Ph.D. D.Sc. (Tech.) Ph.D. ANNUAL REPORT Hyytiä, Esa Ilvesmäki, Mika Luoma, Marko Mölsä, Jarmo Nyberg, Eeva Peuhkuri, Markus Ahvenainen, Marko Antila, Johanna Bai, Xiaole Beijar, Nicklas Costa Requena, Jose Daskalova, Evgenia Jussila, Ville Juva, Ilmari Kaleelazhicathu, Renjish Kiiski, Annukka Koskinen, Henri Leino, Juha Matuszewski, Marcin Nieminen, Laura Paju, Antti Penttinen, Aleksi Susitaival, Riikka Willa, Kirsi Zhou, Wenpeng Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Lic.Sc. (Tech) Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Lic.Sc. (Tech.) Lic.Sc. (Tech.) M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. M.Sc. 2.4 Research assistants and trainees Bai, Xiaole Guiton, Emmanuel Huttunen, Jari Kaikkonen, Sampo Kokko, Juha-Pekka Parkkari, Jussi-Pekka Pitkänen, Mikko Sarala, Risto Tallberg, Mathias Tormo Mas, Ricardo Viskari, Janne Zhou, Yi Zhu Haifeng Creado, Jarrod Gutiérrez, Juan Järvinen, Juha Kneckt, Laura Matinlauri, Anni Pradas Adán, Jose Pulkkinen, Piia Suominen, Niko Timonen, Vesa Viipuri, Timo Zhang, ChenXin Zhou, Wenpeng 10 ANNUAL REPORT 2003 2.5 Part-time teachers Kyntäjä, Timo Nardone, Massimo Nieminen, Klaus Pärssinen, Juha Räisänen, Vilho Seppänen, Kari Uusitupa, Seppo S Protocol Design S Security of Communication Protocols S Telecom Forum S Protocol Design S Special Course in Networking Technology S Switching Technology S Principles in Communications Engineering The guest lecturers and the program in S Telecommunications Forum are shown in Figure 2.1. ANNUAL REPORT What's HOT in telecommunications? Telecom Forum '2003 An open house studia generalia seminar on telecommunications PROGRAM Juha Heinänen, Dr. Tech. WLAN roaming - How to make it happen? Anssi Vanjoki, Nokia, Executive Vice President Mobile multimedia - Personal multimedia Vesa Sadeharju, 3i Finland Oy, Director Funding of hi-tech start-ups Max Björkgren, Radionet, CTO WLAN hotzone - Opportunity for operators and service providers Jari Vainikka, Nokia, Director Standardization - A driving force? Lauri Kuokkanen, Ultra-Crea Oy, Business Development Director, Entrepreneurship Ari Tolonen, DNA Finland Oy, CEO Role of mobile challenger Antti Kohtala, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Director Role of mobile media convergence Tapio Karjalainen, Radiolinja, CEO New drivers of mobile business Hendrik Berndt, DoCoMo Communications Laboratories Europe, SVP, CTO Advanced service provisioning in 4G-mobile systems Lectures are held at 17:15-19:00 in the lecture hall S4, 2nd floor of the Department of Electrical and Communications Engineering Helsinki University of Technology, Otakaari 5A. Bus 102 from Helsinki. More info: Figure 2.1: Telecom Forum ANNUAL REPORT 2003 3 RESEARCH PROJECTS 3.1 AHRAS Project leader: Jorma Virtamo, Samuli Aalto Researchers: Henri Koskinen, Juha Leino, Laura Nieminen, Aleksi Penttinen Project AHRAS concentrates on the routing and other traffic related issues in wireless ad hoc networks. The project started in 2001 and it is funded by the Finnish Defence Forces Technical Research Centre. The research in the project in 2003 covered routing algorithms, topology related issues, game-theoretical network models and simulator development. Research on routing produced two algorithms; one for improving the capacity of wireless multihop networks by utilizing topology information, and another for energy conserving multicast tree construction. Also a method to analyze the effect of routing to flow throughput in ad hoc networks was developed. In network topogical studies, the project concentrated on new parametric models to describe the robustness of ad hoc networks as well as the coverage of sensor networks. This part of the work was done in collaboration with the NAPS project, under which the work is described in some more detail. Third topic of the project adopted a game-theoretic approach on the networks and addressed the advantages and disadvantages of a single network node in participating in the network operation. Advantages were shown to depend on the locations of the nodes as well as the routing algorithms used in the network. Development of the ad hoc network simulator program AHN was continued and it was expanded to support different mobility models for simulation. 3.2 COST 279 Project leader: Jorma Virtamo Researchers: Samuli Aalto, Jouni Karvo, Pirkko Kuusela, Pasi Lassila, Eeva Nyberg-Oksanen, Riikka Susitaival COST 279, a joint project with VTT Information Technology, is the Finnish contribution to the European COST 279 Action, Analysis and Design of Advanced Multiservice Networks Supporting Mobility, Multimedia, and Internetworking. The project started in 2001 and it is funded by Tekes and industrial partners. In 2003, our focus was on the three research areas listed below. QoS mechanisms for the Internet: This work was carried in collaboration with U. Ayesta from INRIA, Sophia Antipolis, and mainly concentrated on differentiated scheduling of the mice and the elephants. Internet measurements show that a small number of large TCP flows (the elephants ) are responsible for the largest amount of data transferred, whereas most of the TCP sessions are made up of few packets (the mice ). Several authors have invoked this property to suggest the use of scheduling algorithms which favor short jobs, such as LAS (Least Attained Service), to differentiate between short and long TCP flows. A packet level stateless, threshold based scheduling mechanism for TCP flows, RuN2C, was pro- ANNUAL REPORT posed. An implementation of this mechanism, which has the advantage of being TCP compatible and progressively deployable, was studied. The behavior of RuN2C was compared with LAS based mechanisms through analytical models and simulations. As an analytical model, a two level priority Processor Sharing PS+PS was used. In the PS+PS system, a connection is classified as high or low priority depending on the amount of service it has obtained. It was shown that PS+PS reduces the mean response time in comparison with standard Processor Sharing when the hazard rate of the file size distribution is decreasing. By simulations we study the impact of RuN2C on extreme values of response times and the mean number of connections in the system. Both simulations and analytical results show that RuN2C has a very beneficial effect on the delay of short flows, while treating large flows as the current TCP implementation does. In contrast, we find that LAS based mechanisms can lead to pathological behavior in extreme cases. As another topic related to QoS in the Internet, a study was started on evaluating the goodput of a single TCP source on a low bandwidth lossless GPRS link experiencing sudden increases in RTT, i.e., delay spikes. Such spikes trigger spurious timeouts that reduce the TCP goodput. This work 1 continues in Traffic engineering in IP/MPLS networks: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) provides new possibilities for improving the performance of IP networks
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