Alternative wastewater treatment at Þingvellir - PDF

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Alternative wastewater treatment at Þingvellir Research projects at the University of Iceland Ragnhildur Gunnarsdóttir PhD, M.Sc. Environmental Engineering Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater

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Alternative wastewater treatment at Þingvellir Research projects at the University of Iceland Ragnhildur Gunnarsdóttir PhD, M.Sc. Environmental Engineering Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Research Projects at HÍ Course: Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Systems Civil and environmental engineering students on year Group work 11 students, 3 groups Each group focused on different areas within the protection area of Þingvallavatn Areas focused on Hakið (Visitor Centre) Information Centre and camping sites (þjónustumiðstöð og tjaldstæði) Cottages Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Three solutions analyzed by students in hence of tehnical, environmental and social aspects 1. Transportation of wastewater a) Drive all wastewater from the area to Klettagarðar treatment plant in Reykjavík b) Drive all wastewater to a central treatment plant within the area 2. Source separation solutions and/or composting toilets 3. Natural treatment systems and pre-fabricated on-site treatment plants Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Þingvellir Sources of wastewater Wastewater sources Cottages Used all year round 629 cottages around Lake Þingvallavatn Different treatment methods Septic tanks in many cases old and/or too small Septic tanks sometimes located within protection zone of drinking water wells Hakið (Visitor Center) Open all year 22 WC and sinks Tertiary treatment plant Wastewater sources Information Center (í. Þjónustumiðstöð) Open all year 16 WC + 4 showers + 2 washing machines for guests Septic tank and leach bed Camping sites Open during summer (May-August) Camping site 1: 4 WC + 2 showers Camping site 2: 3 WC and hand washing facilities Camping site 3: 2 WC and hand washing facilities Closed tanks ( L), emptied when needed Wastewater amount summer Cottages 4 persons each visit Total number of tourists in Þingvellir: Occupied 50% of the Approx. 650,000 pr. year summer Hakið 80% of visitors in Þingvellir 75% visit restrooms Information center 30% visitors in Þingvellir 75% visit restrooms Camping sites 6000 overnight stays each summer Wastewater amount - winter Cottages 4 persons each visit Occupied every third weekend Hakið 80% of visitors in Þingvellir 75% visit restrooms Information center 30% visitors in Þingvellir 75% visit restrooms Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Three solutions analyzed by students in hence of tehnical, environmental and social aspects 1. Transportation of wastewater a) Drive all wastewater from the area to Klettagarðar treatment plant in Reykjavík b) Drive all wastewater to a central treatment plant within the area 2. Source separation solutions and/or composting toilets 3. Natural treatment plants and pre-fabricated mini treatment plants Transportation of wastewater Aim of the analysis To calculate the amount of wastewater from the different sources To calculate the number of kilometers driven annually Transportation to Reykjavík (Klettagarðar) Transportation to a central treatment plant (location chosen by students) Source separation systems Urine diverted from the faecal matter Water usage: L/flush Clean urine Reuse of urine Minimized risk of odor (comes from mixing of faecal matter and urine) Possibility to reuse the human excreta Composted faecal matter Stored urine Single and dual flush urine diverting toilets Single flush system Dual flush system Composting toilets Urine not diverted from the faecal matter Mixing of faecal matter and urine Urine drainage afterwards Water usage: 0,1-1,0 L Ventilation important Composting in cold climate is slow External heating an advantage Waste reduced to 10-30% of original volume Composting toilets A: Single chamber B. Dual chamber C: Removable compartments A B C UMV203M Ragnhildur Gunnarsdóttir Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Transportation of wastewater to Klettagarðar, Reykjavík Exchange of septic tanks for closed tanks would be needed Travelling distances Area divided into eight smaller areas Distance from each area to Hakið (chosen locality by all groups) and Klettagarðar measured Addition of 6 km due to smaller roads Distance to a central treatment plant at Hakið: km/year Distance to Reykjavík: km/year Recommended solutions Hakið (Visitor Centre) Recommended solutions Hakið (Visitor Centre) Recommended to use a combination of Single flush urine diverting toilets, and Waterless urinals Recommended solutions Hakið (Visitor Centre) Yellowwater Brownwater Greywater Collect in tanks and use it as a fertilizer (if allowed by the authorities) Collect in tanks Can be transported to Reykjavik wastewater treatment plant OR composted and used as a fertilizer Relatively clean Use filters (sand, bio, etc) Released directly back to environment 23 Recommended solutions Hakið (Visitor Centre) Advantages Little water for flushing Separation of grey, brown and yellow water System resembles regular toilets Environmentally friendly Keeps the image of Iceland as environmental friendly country Disadvantages New toilet and collection systems have to be installed Toilets not available in Iceland Possible odor problems (?) Recommended solutions Information Centre and Camping Sites Dry composting toilets recommended due to Low cost Strong sustainability credentials Long term solution if well maintained Easy to use Eliminates flushing water requirement Social aspects: Explanations needed for users unfamiliar to composting toilets Looked into Ecodomeo Recommended solutions Cottages Blackwater Recommended to use single flush urine diverting toilets Reuse of urine (stored) and compost within or outside the area Greywater Treated in septic tanks Most of the impurities gone Discharge to leach bed Recommended solutions Cottages Single flush urine diverting toilets Technical aspects Installation for cottage owners Ventilation / Heating system Social Adjustment for cottage users Dry toilets unusual Odor Overview Introduction to research projects Wastewater sources and amount Treatment and toilet solutions analyzed Recommended solutions by the students Conclusions Conclusions Transportation not recommended by any of the groups High diesel cost Road damages Increased traffic within a sensitive area Increased release of greenhous gasses Information Center and camping sites: Dry composting toilets recommended Hakið: Single flush urine diverting toilets + waterless urinals recommended. Filtration for grey water. Cottages: Single flush urine diverting toilets for blackwater. Septic tanks for grey water. Conclusions Difficult to find pre-fabricated on-site treatment plants that fulfil the treatment criteria Uncertain if natural treatment systems can be used in the area Further studies on soil conditions etc. are needed THANK YOU TAKK FYRIR
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