Ä MiTHOD OF CORHiCTINO P-WÄVE MAGNITUDES FOR THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM. by Atiq A. Syed and Otto W. Nuttli - PDF

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AKRL Üi O Ä MiTHOD OF CORHiCTINO P-WÄVE MAGNITUDES FOR THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM by Atiq A. Syed and Otto W. Nuttli Department of birth and Atmospheric Sciencot Saint Louis University

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AKRL Üi O Ä MiTHOD OF CORHiCTINO P-WÄVE MAGNITUDES FOR THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM by Atiq A. Syed and Otto W. Nuttli Department of birth and Atmospheric Sciencot Saint Louis University St. Louis, Missouri Contract F C-0036 Project No SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO. 6 January 1972 D D C MAY 22 t972 Contract Monitor: Stanley M. Needleman Terrestrial Sciences Laboratory The views and conclusions contained in this document ore those of the author and should not be Interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Advanced Research Projects Agency or the U.S. Government. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA Order No Monitored by Air Force* Cambridge Research Laboratories Air Force Systems Command United States Air Force Bedford, Massachusetts Reprinted fror the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 61, No. 6, pp , December NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE Spnngliold V.i ^ DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS THE BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE. COPY FURNISHED CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. PjWtam Code No. 0F10 Effective Date of contract 1 Septtmber 1969 Contract Expiration Date 30 June 1973 Principal Investigator and Phone No Prof. Carl Kisslinger, (614) Ext. 540 Project Scientist and Phone No. Stanley M. Needleman (617) ym mn uam «mtmrn l-.-wmm im.~~ HULmVu Qtö Qualified requestors may obtain additional copies from the Defense Documentation Center. All others should apply to the National Technical Information Service. Unclassified SrniHI» CUnMflftloii DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA.R&D (Snutltr ft »«(hflli»w nl lllh, hnitf til «fitltart mml hulrtliit tuinnmiltm muml hr»nlrtrrt whim lln nmrafl npotl I«rinatlfUd I o«i j n». tim«*c tivi TV ( t -n«ior«u miirinr) Salnc Louis University Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences St. Louis, Missouri ninout TITLC 1«. RCPONT tccunitv CLAStlFICAtlON Unclassified lh. onoup A METHOD OF CORRECTING P-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM. lo 0 ie e n M8*- S5!«lW «nil Inrlwilv* ilal*«) t «u imoriil ffffio nama, mldxtt» Inltltl, lat( nama) Atlq A. Syed Otto W. Nuttil «. ncponr etfl January 1972 F C-0036 ARPA Order No.». PROJICTNO DoD Element 62701D *DoD Subelement n/a 10. DltTNiaUTION ttattmint 7a, TOTAL NO. OF PAOCI 16 ta. oniginator'* REPORT NUMBERI» 7b. NO. OF NEFS SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO OTHER REPORT NOISI (Any other number«(fiat may ba aaalfnad rbla trpotl) AFCRL-72-OI58 A - Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Seism. ^JTOa Soc. **,f^^ Am., This researc supp6rtea'by Ad vanced Researc f was Research Laboratories (LtJ) L. G. Hanscom Field Projects Agency Bedford. Massachusetts This paper presents a methodology for correcting body-wave magnitudes for the effect of focal mechanism In a routine manner. The method requires a knowledge of the prevailing or dominant mechanism for a geograph 1c region, from which tables are constructed which enable one to make the necessary correction. Included In the paper are tables for Aleutian Island, Kamchatka and mld-atlantlc Ocean earthquakes. From a study of seven earthquakes. It Is concluded that the present method gives essentially the same average magnitude with the same standar deviation as a more exact method of correcting for the focal mechanism. The latter method uses the focal-mechanlam parameters of the earthquake, which must be determined Independently for each earthquake. The existing distribution of seismograph stations Is such that transform-fault earthquakes of the mld-atlantlc Ocean will consistently have their P-wave magnitudes underestimated by about 0.2 magnitude units. If no correction 15 made for the focal mechanldra. On the other hand, P-wave magnitudes of earthquakes In Kamchatka and south of the axis of the Aleutian Trench will be overestimated by about 0.2 units. DD /r Unclassified Unclassified ncunly cumiriciiion Kf.V WORD* Earthquake Mechanism Magnitude P-waves Plate Tectonics Unclaasifled AFCRL A METHOD OF CORRECTING P-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR THE EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM by Atiq A. Syed and Otto W. Nuttli Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Saint Louis University St. Louis, Missouri Contract F C-0036 Project No SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO. 6 January 1972 Contract Monitor: Stanley M. Needleman Terrestrial Sciences Laboratory The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Advanced Research Proj- ects Agency or the U.S. Government. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA Order No Monitored by Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories Air Force Systems Command United States Air Force Bedford, Massachusetts Reprinted from the Bulletin e( the Soiimelet kol Sectety el America. Vol. 61. No 6. pp. 1i1Mt26. Decem*tr 1971. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Vol. 61, No. 6, pp December, 1971 A METHOD OF CORRECTING /'WAVK MAGNITUDES FOR THE Kl IIXT Of EARTHQUAKE FOCAL MECHANISM ATIQ A. SrED* AND OTTO \V. XITTU AltsriiACT This paper presents a methodology for correcting body-wave magnitudes for the effect of focal mechanism in a routine manner. The method requires a knowledge of the prevailing or dominant mechanism for a geographic region, from which tables are constructed which enable one to make the necessary correction. Included in the paper are tables for Aleutian Island, Kamchatka and mid-atlantic Ocean earthquakes. From a study of seven earthquakes, it is concluded that the present method gives essentially the same average magnitude with the same standard deviation as a more exact method of correcting for the focal mechanism. The latter method uses the focal-mechanism parameters of the earthquake, which must be determined independently for each earthquake. The existing distribution of seismograph stations is such that transform-fault earthquakes of the mid-atlcntic Ocean will consistently have their P-wave magni- tudes underestimated by about 0.2 magnitude units, if no correction is made 'or the focal mechanism. On the other hand, /»-wave magnitudes of earthquakes in Kamchatka and south of the axis of the Aleutian Trench will be overestimated by about 0.2 units. IsrudDif rion.' 'i'iasiiitlyol'.'nrilkiumk,. stmii.ti.s, it is ( i l. ii i il)l.. tothmity tmbm&e rvmt* meeotainn to llirir ivlaliw MIIII alw.lul,. sl/.v. T\H- miuvpi f BMWBitlMfe, as imlm.liin-.i by Kleiner (I!«,-)), lirsl ma.le llns el.issidcaii,,,, pomifaie. Il.mever. fof llie siu.lv a he Mieaninmlul, il is mwi iy in makr liw.leimi.inali.m of earlli. iiake inauiiim.l.. n,.lependent ol MMNMIMW r.tpa K alii m eoadhiom and of il xisti,,«.jkiiilmition of sfismnurapli sialitiiis. I la MifuTM -..lim. lomted it. an llarlh MmM»lii.'l. N lalnallv liuinnurt M QnteohMi an.l RfchtcrV (MMS) fummk tat il.r UHU wmw nwipilimili. m,.. ran u N rillen as ' I m (A D 4 t}tl . ±,, wliere.1 i. Kn.uiKl. miplitikl.-. f i.. mnmfmmmtm I '»«!. '.. had.lepii, mi ± ihr. i.i.vniral.li.ian.v I ,.p. iiiie. imm ihi«iil.al mm.m- MMl h\ l.iirr.il li.i.-n. UenelH in V.I.Milv Mai l.x lit.- (.Mal III.,... II Ih,. r,.rm. r ilhlll.!.-. ro.-rl. ;, il,...,., nun an.l il.r ^.unv.»im.-i. max U- l.ir«.-11 il..- rii KI)II. rn.«.i.m-, n. iiiu jl lilil. plale. l.lan.l.. I'd». T ,^.,,,/...»7, l,..t I.H-,1 I ^I, ;I. II, I,.., ;1 niilur l.irue UIKI.I or vcn-iinmiiihi.. ill.- ni.i 8 iiiiii N IHIIM S MI-.I, il,..,,.imini IK.II..( M Liiw^miJ,,i.iii.,n. mi id mlnilniiidü ihr IH.IKHIIIHI.- IV.MI.STut.-n,. i-cn J :.n.m-l, i MHis - aihmh.imlm {'M»,.. ^,1 H il M «...i iii. m.mi,. il,.... i!,,,,,,,. N.I...I huh «a».- iii.. K f.ii h,,!,«il....il.i-i..i ihr mmn iwii.-rii.hi IIH- IV-M-I.. wmf- ICMM I...trml «rimcn IMMHNMI Ih. %ttm \I»1I«tMI * 12 BULLETIN OF THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMKHICA recorded /'-wave amplitudes. Chaodra's (1970) method requires prior knowledge of the focal-mechanism parameters of the earthquake. Because such data pnerauy are nol available, the method oarmol be applied on a routine basis. In Jarosch's (1968) method, a focal-mechanism solution Is oalcidated from iho.signs of the lirst r motion and the amplitudes of I'. The amplitudes of P, then, arc corrected for the radiation pattern and used to determine the body-wave magnitude. A limitation of the method for practical purposes is that it requires a larp amount of data well distributed in azimulh, signs of (irst /'motion, and a rather extensive set of ealculations. The purpose of the present study is to develop a simple met hod which routinely can be used to ob lain body-wave tmgnituds estimates that are corrected for the local mechanism. To this end, the concept of a dominant local mechanism, representative of the mechanism of eartli( ual es in a given liypocenlra! region, is introduced. TIIKOUV The /'-wave displacement, u the surface of a focal sphere of radius H, owing to a double-couple source with forces A'(/), is given bv (Hessonova il ed., 1!»(K); Stander lucr.m ii = '.'.n/a't/ - #/«) lirprtv (2) where p is the. density, the /'-wav.' velocity and A''(/) the time derivative of KU). The ( uaiitities,c and // depend upon the orientation of the forces of the couple and the location of the point on the surface of the focal sphere at which the particle displace mem is being calculated. Iviuatioiis for g and are given in the Appendix. All the terms in eqpmtim ( -') except for fey are constant on the surface of the focal phere. Thus, the observed /'wave amplitude, when divided by -.V//, are corrected in a relative sense for the earlhi Uake radiation paliern. Iii»m the ei iialioii given in the ApiM'ttdix, it can \h' lioun that the abs iluie value of 2.17/ varies intm MB lo iiniix. Hy a imple integration, it luilher can k -howti that the average val if JJ-I, over the -urface of the local.phetv i I Aw or approvimai^ly OAJi. TliiK in onler loii.neci the observed ainpliiitde for tl ITect of the IVM-.II iiiechaiiimn in an ah-m.liiie X'IIH-. il i* llece-ar to millliplv the amplituile b ULM _.,,/ fhh «ill rrdmv Ihe ou-mil /'wave amplitiid)- from a double couple «oiirce lo thai wliich il umild U- fnuii a «pheiicalh H.vmntfirir MHim , whtwr li Miilieiical ainpliinde i«iim-.ivrnigc over ilie * l,rf:m * l !,l -plmtf of ihr.icin.il ainpliiihli- Inini ihe loiihi , ^.umv lor IMH \ nitvf niagniiikle l i.rniinaih.if. it i- U-.i to II^ «Inin In.m I.HH.II*.h-iaiti fn.ni IHHI.II liim.. i,.. ujil, 1.,^. fey farh.r.. \..I..iil\ n-.inipliiihi.» m IIM- «. LiiMHtraiii h.ru.r ami I....iilijtfi 1...rn.r^ ( iii.aminiihiil. INII. RUI l.it MM-I. -I.-I iion«. «nmll ern.r- in IIH »..rjil mfcl.iini.ni inrnnm-iir «ill li!i\.- a niininml.h.-ri ii ahi il..- V.IIIK- nf Jr» wmi in. hi. ii.«ih. niiilini.li- t..r il..- nnliain.n ft/mm! IIM-. irtli lakc. l-jinlhimikf M bnml in «it.n M^hN «iiml 1» ha*.- Mniil.1t r.«til nirrlniiifni«. «Inrli i. in k.^imiic «till IIM- tlih.n..i plmi MMhi flhhkl ' -i. \**HS.\ iin.i,. ' ' rliarrrt-t.n.iir f.wt.xft i.u K n.t. M «^ iitr..l n-g».!.- Inl n«-h..ni«m i.iriniii«-r«u«-.% ili.niin.ini.h.itrmgr nutlmni.ni.rf. t «i..i ra«i..k-irmiitmil I Ma il.t. IIM- Jf«hMM r*n W rabiilainl f.«r»h. ^- Hwi«t»H Mainm. t«i, ..i.^ Zn r» run U- o^niiiui i..f.-«il ^p«mn.«ni 4i miiiin. I««t an».-«rilmiii«!,. m ihn tn^m 11H I1.1.4.',,1^1.^.,. nl,,,,!.... Iir.!,1 1. it-^l 1.. letin ^.im,4*nr ilwi hr»rfiml liaml MTHMMMM»I ikr wmnhtftaf nrtifcitvm* It» ihr tlmwimnn,mt ih«.. MKTIU.I. OK (OHUK.TlMi /'WAVE M AdM IT1.KS FOR FOCAL MK.HAMSM 1813 Kissli.^.r a.ul Nultli, mi ). Sm.iul, If it is.slahlislu'd thai the local mechanism is normal, the list is used to selecl those stations which have P waves of b*p an.phtiul. and, therefore, arc best suited for mainituie determination, Consider the sublisl of seumograph stations for which 2xy ( all (/m,), the magnitude, oorreoted for the local mechanism, tor the /'th of n such»tatioas for which /'wave ainplitiulc data are available. Then 1 U mh *{toymn) + Qi ' The iinconvcled MiaKiiitude, («H.«),. is tfiven bv (»,, ), = ion (.1 '/'), + (J. In.n. uhieh it follows that the masnilude ealcnlaled from the Tth station is {in,.), = Uih,. ). - fa - ''.'/ 434 '. The average magnitude, based ii.on the data of N stations, is - (J.,)/ - {% )/' - {t*, - ' -,»')/ - (.1) «H I.M MM or. the ri«hi ban.! MB of e.,uaiion (3 i i tin- nmgnilucle of lhe«mlh.p.ake. - nihdul for the local mecl i n.. It may»* called The nd MM. railed A', i«a t iro\inialel\ e ilal lo -(l k (^ «-'» j/v. H S.V «im-re Vi. lb-lota! nuroftb.-.ii n-of lb.--uhlm lor «lurb.v./ ««.I ^ -....,:,. for all carlbmuak I UN M 1«*«* ihr.lon.ii.al.t b«:. merlwnwii..i.,1,,,.., b call..! tb- n-iti mid MHMUM ittor. a- h.«wt.-.um In IPHNM«ciiiiatun ;ii : * IN«»». + r. IM, H.,.n.xHl.-. a.m..b- pn^-hin- l»r ^Irula«!»«MP^ tt,, l M,, ^.rn^.,1 l..r.l..-.fl.tt...' 1»tm\ mrrl«i.i-w.««r. «b..'.,.:.r...r. Md lwi» :in. r^ul.^l.-.r =. «n...n^rmj. -MlNI =...1 #M f^»^ lm«t. il».mt.«.- -» 'I».I:.!. ««IH«-» N -l-h-l. Im »-I»i-l i.. tin««iiwnith il»- lalwil«« ! vnfc» I l -III- 11 '- N* ^j^a^i»^j^l^liifcim*wi I**, -,, - ^ ^, - *^v«... *pi «^^-.* «^^- - *, ', *, : 1, i: i^llt 1814 BULLETIN OF THIO SEIS.MOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA a stefle dominant meohankra, tor the mid-atlantic Ocean, the mechanisms are of the tensional type, as associated with ridg'es, or of the strike-slip type, as associated with transform faults along fracture zones. AkuHan rämds. The first group (Group I 1 of Aleutian Island earthquakes is based on ih.' common focal-mechanism solutions of l_' earthquakes in the Bat islands. The ocations of these earthquakes, as well as those of the other Aleutian groups, are shown n. Figure 1. Stauder (1968a) and Stauderand B nger (1964 ) determined the focal-»»echanibm parameters of these earthquakes. The averages of these parameters, which arc taken to be those of the duminani focal m, ehanism, are:.v axis (azimuth 32ö?3 ± ?(), plunge 14?3 ± ß 2), )' axis (»ximuth iwi?;; ± 20?2, plunge. l,?;j ± 5?7). The X and ) ax.'sare ili, axes of the forces of the double-couple mechanism, Because the lommani local meelianism paiameiers haw been obtained by taking the arithmetic * ' ' l, ' r: ' 1,,M - ' Xl - - ' '-' ' .. 1 r l h, 1..-,k,.s. «I, pm,,...,,,,,,,., M luuiim., : r: l,,,, 1,, :, '-' :,r,, ', l ^ I !...,.,:,.,.,. Im, A Mrf ) ave^areno. ev.ck ! ti ' ' r '^ H-. h H.i.MM,..rtlM, tt n, 1:i li.. can U.. hi.-vci hx 'rrnii lii_ il.c *mm...,i,..) p.. i n... Allv... :1,, im,,,.,.,., (. (()(lil li). r i;imuiii d MMMM»M*»MwJ Ml ). i\.-iiitiiii:,lh i«rihm-hcuhr Tl.- M MH^I,..,,..,,,..t. :.r.lm l.,..k.-....; Al. ;.n M.m.l.. MIM -.u S ',,r f 1 ** ,M - /,w ' v - -' l H«J -in u :...!.1.-..,.r k...i,,...«. ^ «I V ihn.1» L.n.r... be,. fa*,,!.. s.:,,,.!,^ (i, MiVl,.,,, l (. HMM... l...,..r,..n..m-....i.m.. i :,...,., R :,!.,., H: (I..,,,,.,.,,.,,., (i umlrt.ih..luni M n«nb..*..,h..n Hfcr.lmj.. LUk.....«..,.1 flt«llinr«l.»«! v ' . ' M ' S **« ' - I ...^ Mt» «MMI...r.11.I,.- 7^7^.^? '^ * ' ***** - *..H...Nrt Ml m MNiM I. I... T L . i *',, ' l,,,,,,, ,,,r!, ' ',, * ,, »» » -' - TV r.-..!...r. K n.. i.i* i TI«-I.».«^I.,.4 tin. th.,,,.^..j i.4inmm. ma..' I \ I . ; K. METHOD Of COUEECT1NG P-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR FOCAL MECHANISM 1815 was taken to be representative of the earthquakes of Group 1, Aleutian Islands, for the purpose of calculating eploentral distances, angles of incidence ai the incus and azimuths of the great circle paths from the epicenter to the stations, The lirsi sei of stations in Table I, for which 2xy 0.424, correspond to those that are in be used for magnitude determinations, li can be observed thai the only stations in the United Stales which will have larger-than-average I' ampiltudes arc t)(ll) and WES, whereas, almost all European and Asian stations will have large values,'rims, a /'wave magnitude for an earthquake in this region, if it principally is based npmi data from United Stales stations and if no focal-mechanism correction is made, will be underestimated. The minus signs preceding the Ini factor for some stations indicate TABLE l in/ we / '* FACTOKS FOB AI.KI IIVN Isi.was, GROUP I EAim-iQüAKBia Station Uy Station 2xy SWIoB -Vw siaii.m J v AKl 0,798 MS AIU; MM! kqv II.,Slil MM AKl (i.:iti7 JCT AIT MIA 0.B80 ALQ 0,093 l.on BAG NOl! ATI, l.l's BEC MI; 11. Ill ill Kill' LI'H cc«; OQD 11. lull MKS MUS CMC 11. it»; I'liA HI,A MIIT cor 11 sun!'()() MI.O 0,360 MNN ESK PTC) IK H ; MIN C.DII o.niim QÜE 11.lit.') BOZ OXF IIKC si;o CAR I'MC III.W ll.sn-' sin COB 0,032 QU now 0.sn Sill, 0,848 (TA BAB ST IIIIIIJ SM; 11.ill 111 1) BAH ,11: Sill SI'C DAI, BCD KEV 0,888 TAB 11. IIL'S HAV KIV KM' TOl, 11.sill DUO l!oi KOI» 11 Sll.'i nil KI.O SCI' Kt»N ll.s7 J imh: OEO 0,398 SI IA I.All 11 HI.') \ Al, OIE SI.M MAI, wi:s 11 Hit col. 11 III TAT 11 ins MAN D.M0 osc ITC MAT \AM 11 am OUA Wl.l, / 1;. mniiiil. cure Pl inll I'MI'II, IIKII ihedireciioiior-cnseol ihe lirsl /'motional iho e-tat ions u illiie oppo-ile that at all other -talion-. The rarih( Uake ol (Iroiip J of the Aleulian islands emend aloiiii the arc Irom the Andreaiiull to the lo\ Man.l-, a-can l.e een in 1 itfiire 1. An averse local mechanism i- calculmted Irom the mechani-in parameter- ol nine earllhiual.c-, w delernnni'd In Slaildrr and fdla- (HMSI), ll- \alue- are;.v axis la/,imulh :!( :; i II?!, pluniii' _'.;.(1 t 7.7'. ) a\i- lazimmh I'.U.I -t 7.1, ttliintfe ;!('i t S?2). Talile 1 piv-cni- the 2fy and /' tacior lor (Iroup _'. Aleutian l-laiid earihi uake . Almo-t all ol ihe -lalion-»iih Ji-/ (l.l-'l ale in A-ia or the -ouihue-t racitic. Thu- /' wave mauniiiide e-limate- lor carilmhi.ikc- in ihi- nuion which relv heavil,\ upon United Stale«. lliii KwOfHWI data will lie loo -mall, IllllgW I correction ior the local incciialli'-hi i made. riiei-arlliiillakool in)lip:;ol the Aleut»an I-land-are located in a narrow lialid jn-t 1816 HI I.I.KTIN OK THE SEISMOLOGICAL SOCIBTV (JK AMERICA to tho south of the axis of the Alcniimi Trench, us shown in Figure I. Stauder (1068b) determined focal mechanisms for II earthquakes of this group. Although the /'wave nodal planes dip al about I he same angle for all these earthquakes, their st rike direct ions change as the orientation of the axis of the trench changes. For this reason, ii was decided to subdivide the group of earthquflkes into two pans, a western (Group 3b) and an eastern (Group 3a). Average focal mechanism parameters for Group u are;.v axis (azimuth 166?9 ± V2 4, phmgo 42?9 ± 7M ), )' axis (azimuth 330?1 rfc 31?4, plunge.'«i?! ± 7?3). For Group ;il) they are:.v axis (azimuth l((?() ± 13?5, plunge 4()?0 ± 1?!»), F-axis (azimuth 231?0 ± 7?8, plunge 43?7 ± 3?8), Moth /'-wave nodal planes dip al about -I,') , and their strikes are approximately parallel to the trend of the TABLE -' L'J-//. wi) / '* PACTOBS fön AI.KITIAN ISLANDS, OROOP 2 EAKTHQUAKBS Statioa 2.vj siaiicm ii.v Station.'iv Station J,i.i ADt: IM»;! BAG TAU 0,474 DI NT'lt (TA O.llir. TAT I»,5511 DAL (HID OII'.IS ÜUA i).s. r ).s DUO -ii.oil OXF otiis HKC O.H72 AAM ESK 0.^8 PDA IIIAV AK! 0.1SII KI.O ITO Mi AKT CDU ^1'' HOW ALQ OßO IIAII 0.13] JEH AQÜ OIE licd (COD ATU o :!!)i QOL -o.oio liol, OODII l-aii ATL lisc CP MAN BEC IST SIIA MSII BHP KEV SL.M N'DI BKö KIP S'IT MIA 0.84 BLA KON 0.LM2 TOL PMG BLO LON TR] POO BOO IJ'S TliN QÜE MOZ LUB TÜC -0,060 1! AH CAR MAL f.mk o.i'{7 luv o.sea ( Cd MDS VAL BO CMC MUT WKI, SIN COP 0.27:' MN\ WKS ' / '. Regional correction factor trench. The earthquakes a«of extensional character, with the axis of tension perpendicular to the axis of the trench. 'Cables ;{ and 4 cont
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