Adana İli Kapasiteli Açik Perde Sistemli Etlik Piliç Kümesinde Çevre Koşullarinin Düzenlenm esi Üzerine Bir Araştirm a - PDF

Ç.Ü.Z.F. Dergisi, 2003, 18 (3): J.Agric. Fac. Ç.Ü., 2003, 18(3): A n Investigatin On E nvirn m en tal C nditins Fr O pen C urtain System Pultry H using W ith A C apacity O f 10,000 C hickens

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Ç.Ü.Z.F. Dergisi, 2003, 18 (3): J.Agric. Fac. Ç.Ü., 2003, 18(3): A n Investigatin On E nvirn m en tal C nditins Fr O pen C urtain System Pultry H using W ith A C apacity O f 10,000 C hickens In T he A dana R egin Atilgan ATILGAN(I) Taner ALAGÔZ(I) Abstract In this study, differences between the ideal and current envirnmental cnditins f cmmnly cnstructed pultry huses and the pen curtain system as used in the Adana regin were evaluated. Fr the study a private briler husing with a capacity f 1(),()()() chicken was selected. The wet and dry temperatures were measured inside the pultry husing fr a year by a cmputer-aided system. Inside-utside temperatures and humidity data were btained and evaluated in terms f the deviatins frm the suggested values, and the results were interpreted. It was determined that the temperature and humidity were nt cndusive in summertime prductin perids in this type f briler husing. Suggestins were made fr renvatins t the briler husings t minimize these negative envirnmental cnditins. Key Wrds : Pultry Husing, Briler, Envirnmental Cnditins, Temperature, Relative Humidity Adana İli Kapasiteli Açik Perde Sistemli Etlik Piliç Kümesinde Çevre Kşullarinin Düzenlenm esi Üzerine Bir Araştirm a Özet Araştırmada; Adana ili ve yöresinde yaygın larak inşa edilmiş etlik piliç üretimi yapan açık perde sistemli kümeslerde, kümes içi çevre kşullarının lması gerekli en uygun kşullara göre ne ölçüde gerçekleştiğinin rtaya çıkarılması planlanmıştır. Bu amaçla yapılan değerlendirmeler snucunda yöreyi temsil edebilecek özel bir şirkete ait, kapasiteli açık perde sistemli etlik piliç kümesi seçilmiştir. Bu kümese yerleştirilen bilgisayar destekli ölçme düzeneği ve algılayıcılar yardımıyla bir yıl süreyle ıslak ve kuru termmetre sıcaklık değerleri elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu değerler yardımıyla araştırmanın gerçekleştiği üretim periytlarına ait kümes içi ve dış sıcaklık iie ransal nem değerlerinin, etlik piliçler için uygun lan değerlerden lan sapmaları belirlenmiş ve bunların nedenleri açıklanmıştır. Snuçta araştırmaya materyal larak seçilen açık perde sistemli kümesin mevcut yapısal durumunda ptimal sıcaklık ve nem değerlerinin yaz aylarındaki periytlarda sağlanamadığı belirlenerek bu durumun rtadan kaldırılabilmesi amacıyla kümeste alınması gerekli önlemlerden söz edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kümes, Etlik Piliç, Çevre Kşullan, Sıcaklık, Oransal Nem Intrductin The increasing ppulatin alng with the limited lid prductin surces in the wrld cnstitutes widespread feeding prblems. Studies are dne fr the prductin f animals, which have mre prducts and in shrt time beside cattle, sheep, gal etc. By facing the prblem, all cuntries cntribute t saving animal prducts, which are imprtant fr healthy fd prducts. (Annymus, I996ab). In pultry husing building, ptimum envirnmental cnditins fr the chickens and the weather cnditins are nt taken int cnsideratin and even in different weather cnditins the same pultry husings are cnstructed. Befre cnstructing a pultry husing in any regin, the weather cnditins f the regin shuld be Yayın Kuruluna Geliş Tarihi: University t Çukurva, Fac. f Agriculture, Department f Agriculture Structure and Irrigatin, Balcalı/ADANA An Investigatin On Envirnmental Cnditins Fr Open Curtain System Pultry Husing With A Capacity 01' 1(),()()() Chickens In The Adana Regin examined. Stable favrable envirnmental cnditins fr the prductin system includes nt nly the pultry husing but als the materials that are needed in pultry husing, the psitin f the pultry husing, the air cnditining and the weather cnditins (Kumva and Alagz, 1986). Unwilling changes in pultry husing temperature is expected t be the cause f metablic diseases, lss f weight and the sudden deaths seen in the birds (Mura and Naas, 1996). Chickens can easily adapt t different weather cnditins but can be affected by extreme heat, sudden temperature changes and cld air currents (Tekinel et al., 1988). When cmparing the birds perfrmance at temperature ranges f C and 17 t 35 C, it was fund that the prductivity indexes increased and sanitary prblems decreased (Mura and Naas, 1996). Unstable and unfavrable envirnmental cnditins cause lw prductivity in chicken breeding, which thus causes ecnmic casualties (Tekinel el al., 1988). The humidity inside the pultry husing is anther envirnmental cnditin l lake int cnsideratin since this affects prductivity (Ekmekyapar, 1993). Nt nly is the heat a prblem fr animal health but als ihe rati f the humidity shuld be cnsidered (Ekmekyapar, 1993). Studies shw that the negative effect f the relative humidity n animals ccurs in bth high and lw humidity. Very lw humidity, which induces a dusty envirnment, causes respiratry system prblems. High humidity, especially with heal ver 27 C, causes respiratin prblems and als sudden deaths (Lindley and Whitaker, 1996). Maln et al. (1985), staled that the ptimum humidity rati fr the chickens shuld be between 50% and 70%. This research was carried ut at tw stages. During the first stage, pen curtain system pultry husings were chsen randmly in the Adana regin t be suitable fr this research. Then the heal and misture ratis, which were imprtant l the animals, were recrded by several sensrs inside and utside f the pultry husing and data were recrded als by Ihe cmputer autmatically in summer, winter and between the seasns. In the secnd stage the heat and misture dispersin rati, the maximum and minimum utside temperature and relative humidity between the seasns in chicken prductin, was revealed by cmputer graphics. Later n, these graphics were cmpared 22 with ther researchers findings t determine the ptimum temperature and the misture ratis in the pultry husing. After that, sme f the precautins t be taken l remve the negative envirnmental cnditins in pen curtain pultry husing, which will be built in the regin, were discussed. Materials and Methds Materials The adverage pen curtain system pultry husing with a capacity f 10,000 used in this research was 61.7 m lng and 12.3 m wide, and it was divided int five parts with curtains. Each curtain wuld be pened during different perids r steps t prmte the grwth and cmfrt f the chickens. Thus as the chickens increased in size and mass, s did Ihe husing. In this research Anac, Avian and Hubbert hybrid chicks, cmmnly prduced in the regin, were used. Fr measuring weight, a scale, which is sensitive l ±5 grams was used. The health, feeding and care f all the animals were maintained equally fr each perid thrughut the research. The Measuring Scale f the Cmputer The measuring scale that is used t determine the pultry husing s interir and exterir atmsphere is frmed by a dala lgger and sensr and 286 xt cmputer, with 2 M B Ram capacity, a screen card f 512 K B and a mnclr mnitr. In rder t have the system measure, every sensr was inputed with different temperature values between -10 and 70 C, and a calibratin was dne accrding t resistance values. The resistance values that the sensrs have measured were transfrmed t dry and wet temperature values by using a prgram written in Q Basic (Atılgan, 2000). Methds Temperature and relative humidities were determined in March, April, May, September, Octber and Nvember and December, January and February fr the winter as well as June, July and August fr the summer cvering a perid frm December 1997 t Nvember The temperature and misture ratis f the pultry husing were measured by a cmputer. Inner and uter heal temperatures were taken every ten secnds by the prgram written in Q Basic, but nly the mean average was recrded every thirty Ç.Ü.Z.F. Dergisi, 2003, 18 (3): J.Agric. Fac. Ç.Ü., 2003, 18(3): minutes. Dide type sensrs were used t measure the temperature. The sensrs were placed in twenty-six different psitins 50 cm high thrughut the pultry husing t reflect the heal prperly as seen in figure 1. Results And Discussin Thrughut the research, six prductin perids were undertaken accrding t breeding, tgether with the dispersin ( Table 1). Graphics were prepared l shw the temperature and the misture values thrughut the winter, summer and transitin perids t examine their ptimal levels. Tabic 1. Prductin Perid and Dispersin in Respect f Seasns Perid N. Dale Seasn Perid f Time (day) 1 29/12/1997-9/2/1998 Winler /2/ /3/1998 Winter/Spring /4/ /5/1998 Spring /6/ /7/1998 Summer /8/ /9/1998 Summer /10/ /11/1998 Autumn 36 The values during the drawing perid, especially thse related with uter heal, were taken int cnsideratin and afterwards humidity graphics were prepared accrding t the passing days. In every prductin perid, the necessity f the animals accrding l age and the air cnditining f the pultry husing was regulated. As an example, figure 2 and 3 were given t shw the dispersin f heat in the pultry husing. In figure 2, the heat which the ne week chicks need was determined t be between C and the pultry husing easily supplied this thugh warming was nt dne between 9:00a.m. - 10:00a.m. and frm 16:00p.m.- 17:00p.m. Upn examinatin f the humidity levels, it is seen that sufficient heat fr the chickens was btained accrding t heal supplies, the structural psitin f the pultry husing and the bradness f the area between interir and exlerir parts. In figure 3, the temperature inside the pultry husing was 35'C between 9:00 a.m. and 17:00 p.m., which shuld have been 26 C fr the 3 weeks ld chicks. During the summer perid, it is determined that the inner heal f the pultry seems l be a prblem fr the chicks after tw weeks. The chicks were mainly brn when the temperature was 30 C and ver, these temperatures als reflected the time when the chicken reached their cutting age, the time when the chicken are at prime weight and the farmers desire t slaughter. When we examine figure 3, which reflects the summer perid, the misture levels inside and utside seem t prevent a heat difference. The temperature f the pultry husing seems t be 30 C and ver during the summer and it was determined that the pultry husing was nt suitable envirnmentally fr the animals. Table 2 shws the values f the temperatures f the pultry husing fr ur research as cmpared t the average inner heal values. Thse temperature values are determined as nt being a prblem in winter and between the seasns fr prductin perids ne, tw, three and six, but these temperatures were determined as being a prblem during the furth and fifth perids fr the animals wh became at cutting age in this type f pultry husing. 23 An Investigatin On Envirnmental Cnditins Fr Open Curtain System Pultry Husing With A Capacity 01 10,000 Chickens In The Adana Regin Table 2. Mean Temperature Values in Pultry Husing During The Prductin Perid f Chicks Perid N Prductin Seasn Mean Temperature Values ( Q Recmmended Suitable Temperatures fr Pultry ( C ) 1 Winter Win+Spr Spring Summer Summer Autumn Cnclusins and Suggestins The high temperature in summer is determined t be a prblem fr the animals because it affects their grwing and thus ptimum cnditins cannt be btained. Hwever thc:,c prblems d nt ccur during the winter. In Table 3, the active weight gains fr every prductin perid are given. The weekly weight cntrls are dne fr every prductin perid, but n cntrl was dne in the first prductin perid except during the first and last week. When Table 3 is examined, the lwest weight degrees f chicken are seen in perids fur and five. Als the weight gain seems t be stable between the fifth and sixth week in perids fur and five as cmpared t the ther weeks. This ccurs because the structural prperties f the pultry husing d nt cntain suitable cnditins fr the chickens and cannt prevent the extreme temperature rise during the summer. As a result f this, the feed cnsumptin and weight f the chickens decrease. table 3. The Live Weight Changing f Briler Chickens During The Prductin Perid Perid N Prductin Seasn The Live Weight Changing f Briler Chicken n Weekly Perids (g) Day ne Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 1 Winter Win+Spr Disease Spring Summer Disease Summer Autumn Ç.Ü.Z.F. Dergisi, 2003, 18 (3): J.Agı ic. Fac. Ç.Ü., 2003, 18(3): The technical criteria revealed tt) he imprtant in the cnstructin f the pultry husings. The criteria fr pen curtain pultry husings cnstructed in the Adana regin are listed as: -The pultry husings shuld be settled dwn in an East-West directin. -The eaves f the pultry husings shuld be at least cm lng in rder t prevent direct sun light and temperature rises caused by radiatin. -The pultry husing width shuld nt be mre than 12 m wide, the rf angle shuld be adjusted accrdingly (htter regins with less f an angle than clder regins). -The climate and vlume f the air are the mst imprtant factrs t determine the height f the pultry husing wall. The height shuld be at least 2.8m r 3.0 m tall in Adana. -The clr f the surface and the quality f the cave material affects the inner temperature f the pultry husing. Light shiny surfaces have mre reflective prperties than dark dull surfaces. References Annymus, 1996a. Kanatlı Kiimes Hayvanları Yetiştiriciliği. T. C. Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı Müsteşarlığı Tarımsal Üretim Ptansiyelinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Tüketim Kalıplarında Beklenen Gelişmeler. Hayvancılık Alt Kmisyn Rapru* Yayın N: DPT2444-ÖİK, 50İs, Ankara. Annymus, 1996b. Kanatlı Hayvan Yetiştiriciliği. Zirai ve İktisadi Rapr , Türkiye Ziraat Odaları Birliği, Yayın N: 176, s , Ankara. Atılgan, A., Adana İli Açık Perde Sistemli Etlik Piliç (Briler) Kümesinde Çevre Kşullarının Düzenlenmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Dktra Tezi, Adana. Ekmekyapar, T., Hayvan Burmaklarında Çevre Kşullarının Düzenlenmesi. Atatürk Üniversitesi Yayınları, N: 698, s.76-78, Erzurum. Kıımva, Y Alagöz, A. T., Çukurva Bölgesi İklimine Uygun Dğal Therefre, the temperature rise f the white clred cave surfaces will be less than the nes cvered with dark dull material. -The number f the animals shuld be lwered % in the summer. -In rder t supply air circulatin, fans with a lw speed and large effect shuld be used when natural air ventilatin is nt adequate. -By evapratin cling, the inner temperature can be lwered by 7-8 C in the pultry husing when cmpared with the uter climate. Fr this reasn strng water absrbing materials fr cling can be applied t the panes in the nrth and suth walls. These suggestins will decrease the negative effects f heat especially in July and August in Adana and its surrunding areas. The prductins are nt expected t be successful unless these kinds f precautins are taken. In this case, cmpanies shuld recnsider prductin during the critical mnths. Havalandırmalı Et ve Yumurta Üretim Kümeslerinde Kümes İçi Çevre Kşullarının Değerlendirilmesi Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. II. Ulusal Kültürteknik Kngresi Bildirileri, Cilt:2, s Adana. Lindley, J.A., and Whitaker, J,A., Pultry Husing. Agricultural Building and Structures, USA, p Matn, A., Daelemans, J., Lambrecht, J., Husing f Animals. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Netherlands, 458p. Mura, D.J., and Naas, I.A., Thermal Efficiency f Pultry Husing. Internatinal Cnference n Agricultural Engineering,, p. 1-5, Madrid. Tekinel, O., Kumva, Y., Alagöz, T., Demir, Y., Hayvan Barınaklarının Planlanması. Çukurva Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Ders Kitabı. N: 10, 6 Is, Adana. 25 ) 1.70 m- Near the nrth wall f the pultry husing 0, 5, '. 8've 15 sensr number Curtain In the middle sectin f the pultry husing 7, 10. 7'. 12've 10' sensr number Near the suth wall f the pultry husing 3, O'. 5've 6' sensr number An Investigatin On Envirnmental Cnditins Fr Open Curtain System Pultry Husing With A Capacity Of 10,000 Chickens In The Adana Regin C.U.Z.F. Pergisi, 2003, 18 (3): J.Agric. Fac. C.U., 2003, 18(3): O S 20 CL 10 h- a « 0 i (b) » 40 E 3 20 X 0 i c\i ! r 1 l r r--- r O O O O O O O O O O O t 00 CN b CO O C\i C T r T OJ CM Time (hur) Figure 2. Hurly changes f inside and utside relative humidity and temperature values btained by the sensrs placed (a) near the nrth wall, (b) middle sectin and (c) near the suth wall in the pultry husing in An Investigatin On Envirnmental Cnditins Fr Open Curtain System Pultry Husing With A Capacity Of 1(),()()() Chickens In The Adana Regin 40 r 40 t (b) Cvj CD c cm 'S x Time (hur) cb CM c\j CM O O O Figure 3. Hurly changes f inside and utside relative humidity and temperature values btained by the sensrs placed (a) near the nrth wall, (b) middle sectin and (c) near the suth wall in the pultry husing in
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