Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census - PDF

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Catalogue no XIE Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census Aboriginal Peoples, 2006 Census Census year 2006 Statistics Canada Statistique Canada How to obtain

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Catalogue no XIE Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census Aboriginal Peoples, 2006 Census Census year 2006 Statistics Canada Statistique Canada How to obtain more information Specifi c inquiries about this product and related statistics or services should be directed to the National Contact Centre. For information on the wide range of data available from Statistics Canada, you can contact us by calling one of our toll-free numbers. You can also contact us by or by visiting our website at National inquiries line National telecommunications device for the hearing impaired Depository Services Program inquiries Fax line for Depository Services Program inquiries Website Information to access the product This product, catalogue no XIE, is available for free in electronic format. To obtain a single issue, visit our website at and select Publications. Standards of service to the public Statistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, the Agency has developed standards of service which its employees observe in serving its clients. To obtain a copy of these service standards, please contact Statistics Canada toll free at The service standards are also published on under About us Providing services to Canadians. Statistics Canada Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census Aboriginal Peoples, 2006 Census Census year 2006 Published by authority of the Minister responsible for Statistics Canada Minister of Industry, 2008 All rights reserved. The content of this electronic publication may be reproduced, in whole or in part, and by any means, without further permission from Statistics Canada, subject to the following conditions: that it be done solely for the purposes of private study, research, criticism, review or newspaper summary, and/or for non-commercial purposes; and that Statistics Canada be fully acknowledged as follows: Source (or Adapted from, if appropriate): Statistics Canada, year of publication, name of product, catalogue number, volume and issue numbers, reference period and page(s). Otherwise, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, by any means electronic, mechanical or photocopy or for any purposes without prior written permission of Licensing Services, Client Services Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0T6. January 2008 Catalogue no XIE ISBN Frequency: occasional Ottawa La version française de cette publication est disponible sur demande (n o XIF au catalogue). Note of appreciation Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other institutions. Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued cooperation and goodwill. Aboriginal Peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census Table of contents Highlights... 6 Aboriginal people surpass the one-million mark... 9 International scope: Canada's proportion second, behind New Zealand Eight in 10 Aboriginal people live in Ontario and in the western provinces An increasingly urban population Winnipeg home to most urban Aboriginal people Half of the Aboriginal population comprised of children and youth Aboriginal children most likely to live with a lone parent Reduction in crowding; no change in proportion of homes needing major repairs Crowding and need for dwelling repairs more common in western cities Aboriginal people somewhat more likely to move Inuit Inuit population: Young and growing Three-quarters of Inuit live in Inuit Nunaat stretching from Labrador to the Northwest Territories Youngest Inuit populations in Nunavut and Nunavik Inuit population in urban centres has grown Despite a reduction in crowding, three out of ten Inuit live in crowded homes Many Inuit in all regions live in crowded conditions Growing percentage of Inuit live in homes in need of major repairs Many Inuit live in households with more than one family Inuit in Nunavik most likely to live in households with more than one family One-quarter of Inuit children lived with a lone parent Inuit children in the Inuvialuit region and Nunavik more likely to live with a lone parent Language: Inuktitut remains strong, but its use has declined Some Inuit learning Inuktitut as a second language Inuktitut language strongest in Nunavik and Nunavut Inuktitut being learned as a second language in all regions Métis High rates of growth over the past decade Nearly nine out of 10 Métis lived in the western provinces and Ontario Seven out of 10 Métis lived in urban areas Winnipeg home to largest number of urban Métis Métis population still young but has aged Métis children twice as likely to live with a lone parent Crowding and need for major repairs more common for Métis living in rural areas Métis more likely than non-aboriginal people to move within the same census subdivision. 36 Older Métis more likely to speak an Aboriginal language Statistics Canada Catalogue no Table of contents continued First Nations people Large increase in the First Nations population Majority of First Nations people live in Ontario and western provinces Fewer First Nations people live on reserve than off reserve Off-reserve population most likely to live in census metropolitan areas First Nations people more likely to move than non-aboriginal population First Nations population youngest in the Prairie provinces On-reserve population has a larger share of children First Nations children twice as likely to live with a lone parent Reduction in crowding over past decade First Nations population four times more likely to live in homes in need of major repairs Share of First Nations people who speak an Aboriginal language holds steady, even among younger generation Cree spoken by the largest number of First Nations people First Nations languages being learned as second languages Concepts and definitions Reference map Statistics Canada Catalogue no Highlights In 2006, the number of people who identified themselves as an Aboriginal person, that is, North American Indian (First Nations people), Métis and Inuit, surpassed the one-million mark, reaching 1,172,790. The past decade has seen a large increase in the Aboriginal population. Between 1996 and 2006, it grew by 45%, nearly six times faster than the 8% rate of increase for the non- Aboriginal population. In 2006, Aboriginal people, First Nations, Métis and Inuit, accounted for almost 4% of the total population of Canada. Internationally, the share of Aboriginal people in Canada's population is second to New Zealand where the Maori accounted for 15% of the population. Indigenous people made up just 2% of the population of Australia and of the United States. Of the three Aboriginal groups in Canada, the Métis experienced the greatest increase in the past decade. Their number grew 91%, reaching 389,785 people in This was more than three times as fast as the 29% increase in First Nations people, whose number reached 698,025. The Inuit increased 26%, to 50,485. Although eight in 10 Aboriginal people live in Ontario and the western provinces, the fastest increase in the past decade occurred east of Manitoba. The Aboriginal population grew 95% in Nova Scotia, 67% in New Brunswick, 65% in Newfoundland and Labrador, 53% in Quebec and 68% in Ontario. In the western provinces, the fastest growth was observed in Manitoba (36%). Aboriginal people in Canada are increasingly urban. In 2006, 54% lived in urban areas (including large cities or census metropolitan areas and smaller urban centres), up from 50% in In 2006, Winnipeg was home to the largest urban Aboriginal population (68,380). Edmonton, with 52,100, had the second largest number of Aboriginal people. Vancouver ranked third, with 40,310. Toronto (26,575), Calgary (26,575), Saskatoon (21,535) and Regina (17,105), were also home to relatively large numbers of urban Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal population is younger than the non-aboriginal population. Almost half (48%) of the Aboriginal population consists of children and youth aged 24 and under, compared with 31% of the non-aboriginal population. Over the past decade, the share of Aboriginal people living in crowded homes has declined. In 2006, 11% of Aboriginal people lived in homes with more than one person per room, down from 17% in At the same time, nearly one in four lived in homes requiring major repairs in 2006, unchanged from Overall, Aboriginal people were almost four times as likely as non-aboriginal people to live in a crowded dwelling. They were three times as likely to live in a home in need of major repairs. Inuit In 2006, there were 50,485 Inuit in Canada. The Inuit population increased much more rapidly (26%) between 1996 and 2006 than the non-aboriginal population (8%). The Inuit population is much younger that the non-aboriginal population. The median age for Inuit in 2006 was 22 years, compared with 40 years for non-aboriginal people. This difference is largely the result of a higher fertility rate for Inuit women. Statistics Canada Catalogue no The majority of Inuit (78%) lived in Inuit Nunaat. This is the Inuktitut expression for 'Inuit homeland' consisting of four regions across the Arctic. In 2006, 49% of the total Inuit population in Canada lived in Nunavut, 19% in Nunavik in northern Quebec, 6% in the Inuvialuit region of the Northwest Territories, and 4% in Nunatsiavut in northern Labrador. Nunavik had the fastest growing Inuit population. Between 1996 and 2006, the number of Inuit living in this region grew by 25% with a 20% increase for Nunavut. In the Nunatsiavut region, the population increased by 3% while the Inuit population in the Inuvialuit region of the Northwest Territories declined by 3% over the decade. Despite a reduction in crowding, three out of ten Inuit live in crowded homes. In 2006, 31% of Inuit lived in crowded conditions, down from 36% in In contrast, 3% of the non- Aboriginal population in Canada lived in crowded conditions in Nearly half (49%) of Inuit in Nunavik lived in crowded dwellings. In 2006, about 14,000 Inuit in Canada, (28%) of the total, reported living in homes requiring major repairs. This was four times higher than non-aboriginal people (7%). In Inuit Nunaat, the figure was 31% for Inuit, a proportion that increased from 19% in While the Inuktitut language remains strong overall (69% of Inuit could speak Inuktitut), knowledge and use are declining. Inuit are less likely to speak it as their main language at home 50% in 2006 down from 58% in In addition, smaller percentages of Inuit are reporting Inuktitut as their mother tongue and a declining percentage can speak it well enough to have a conversation. Métis The Métis were the fastest growing Aboriginal group in Canada, increasing by 91% since 1996 to reach 389,785 in This was more than 11 times the rate of increase for the non- Aboriginal population (8%). In 2006, 87% of all Métis lived in the West and in Ontario. An estimated 7% of the Métis lived in Quebec, 5% in Atlantic Canada and the remainder lived in one of the three Territories. About four-fifths (80%) of the increase in the number of Métis over the last decade were accounted for by the four provinces with large Métis populations: Alberta, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. In 2006, nearly seven out of 10 Métis (69%) lived in urban areas, up slightly from 67% in (Urban areas include large cities, or census metropolitan areas, and smaller urban centres.) The census enumerated 40,980 Métis living in Winnipeg in 2006, the largest Métis population of all census metropolitan areas. They accounted for 6% of Winnipeg's total population. Overall, there was a decrease in the share of Métis living in crowded homes or in homes needing repairs since However, crowded housing and homes in need of major repairs were most common among rural Métis living in the Prairie provinces. Older Métis are more likely to speak an Aboriginal language. An estimated 12% of Métis aged 75 and older were able to converse in an Aboriginal language, compared with 9% of those aged 65 to 74 and 6% of people aged 45 to 64. Less than 3% of Métis aged 44 and under spoke an Aboriginal language. Statistics Canada Catalogue no The most commonly spoken Aboriginal language among Métis is Cree. In 2006, 9,360 Métis could carry on a conversation in Cree, an Algonquian language. First Nations people An estimated 698,025 people identified themselves as North American Indians, also referred to as 'First Nations people' (both status and non-status Indians). The First Nations population increased 29% between 1996 and 2006, 3.5 times the increase of 8% for the non-aboriginal population. A smaller proportion of First Nations people lived on reserve than off reserve. An estimated 40% lived on reserve, while the remaining 60% lived off reserve in The off-reserve proportion was up slightly from 58% in Censuses in both 1996 and 2006 found that about three out of every four people in the offreserve First Nations population lived in urban areas. The Prairie provinces were home to young First Nations populations. The median age of First Nations people in Saskatchewan was 20 years, compared with 21 in Manitoba and 23 in Alberta. On the other hand, the median age in Ontario was 28 years and in Quebec, 30 years. First Nations people were five times more likely than non-aboriginal people to live in crowded homes, defined as more than one person per room. Crowding was especially common on reserves, where just over one-quarter (26%) lived in crowded conditions, down from one-third (33%) in First Nations people were four times more likely than non-aboriginal people to live in dwellings requiring major repairs. In 2006, 28% of First Nations people lived in a home in need of major repairs, compared with just 7% of the non-aboriginal population. The poor condition of dwellings was especially common on reserves, where about 44% of First Nations people lived in a home requiring major repairs. The census recorded over 60 different Aboriginal languages spoken by First Nations people in Canada, grouped into distinct language families. These include Algonquian, Athapascan, Siouan, Salish, Tsimshian, Wakashan, Iroquoian, Haida, Kutenai and Tlingit. In both 2001 and 2006, about 29% of First Nations people who responded to the census said they could speak an Aboriginal language well enough to carry on a conversation. The figure was higher for First Nations people living on reserve (51%) than off reserve (12%). One in four First Nations people (25%) reported that they had an Aboriginal mother tongue in 2006, about the same proportion as in However, more First Nations people could speak an Aboriginal language than reported an Aboriginal language as a mother tongue. This may be attributed to First Nations people who have learned an Aboriginal language as a second language. The Aboriginal language spoken by the largest number of First Nations people is Cree. In 2006, an estimated 87,285 could carry on a conversation in Cree, followed by 30,255 who could speak Ojibway, 12,435 who spoke Oji-Cree and 11,080 who spoke Montagnais- Naskapi. Statistics Canada Catalogue no Aboriginal people surpass the one-million mark New data from the 2006 Census show that the number of people who identified themselves as an Aboriginal person has surpassed the one-million mark. Their share of Canada's total population is on the rise. In 2006, Aboriginal people accounted for 3.8% of the total population of Canada enumerated in the census, up from 3.3% in 2001 and 2.8% in A total of 1,172,790 people identified themselves as an Aboriginal person, that is, North American Indian (hereafter referred to as First Nations people 1 in this report), Métis or Inuit in the 2006 Census (see 'Concepts and definitions' section). The census counted 976,305 Aboriginal people in 2001 and 799,010 in The Aboriginal population has grown faster than the non-aboriginal population. Between 1996 and it increased 45%, nearly six times faster than the 8% rate of increase for the non- Aboriginal population. Of the three Aboriginal groups, the fastest gain in population between 1996 and 2006 occurred among those who identified themselves as Métis. Their number increased 91%, to an estimated 389,785. This was more than three times the 29% increase in the First Nations population, whose number reached 698,025. The number of people who identified themselves as Inuit increased 26%, to 50,485 in Consequently, the share of the Aboriginal population who identify as Métis has grown steadily. In 2006, they accounted for one in three (33%) Aboriginal people, up from 30% in 2001 and 26% in First Nations people accounted for the majority (60%) of Aboriginal people in 2006, while Inuit represented 4%. 3 Several factors may account for the growth of the Aboriginal population. These include demographic factors, such as high birth rates. In addition, more individuals are identifying themselves as an Aboriginal person, and there has also been a reduction in the number of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves since Comparing Aboriginal census data over time Some Indian reserves and settlements did not participate in the census as enumeration was not permitted, or it was interrupted before completion. In 2006, there were 22 incompletely enumerated reserves, down from 30 in 2001 and 77 in Data in this document showing changes in percentages and proportions between censuses have been adjusted to account for incompletely enumerated reserves. That is, changes have been calculated using data that include only reserves enumerated in both census periods being compared. 1. Respondents self-identified as 'North American Indian'; however, the term 'First Nations people' is used throughout this report. 2. Data showing changes in percentages and proportions between 2006 and past census years have been adjusted to account for incompletely enumerated reserves. 3. The remaining 3% either identified with more than one Aboriginal group, or were Registered Indians or members of an Indian band or First Nation who did not identify as Aboriginal. Statistics Canada Catalogue no Table 1 Size and growth of the population by Aboriginal identity, Canada, 1996 and 2006 Aboriginal identity 2006 Percentage change from 1996 to Total population 31,241,030 9 Aboriginal identity population 1,172, First Nations people 1 698, Métis 1 389, Inuit 1 50, Multiple and other Aboriginal responses 2 34, Non-Aboriginal population 30,068,240 8 Notes: 1. Includes persons who reported a North American Indian, Métis or Inuit identity only. 2. Includes persons who reported more than one Aboriginal identity group (North American Indian, Métis or Inuit) and those who reported being a Registered Indian and/or Band member without reporting an Aboriginal identity. 3. Data have been adjusted to account for incompletely enumerated reserves in 1996 and Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1996 and International scope: Canada's proportion second, behind New Zealand Similar upward trends in population growth have also been observed in the census counts of indigenous populations in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. 4 The Aboriginal share of Canada's population ranked second, behind that of New Zealand. While Aboriginal people represented 4% of the population of Canada in 2006, in New Zealand, the Maori accounted for 15% of the population. Indigenous people made up just 2% of the population of Australia and of the United States. Eight in 10 Aboriginal people live in Ontario and in the western provinces Eight in every 10 Aboriginal people, just over 944,000, lived either in Ontario or in the four western provinces in The census enumerated 242,495 in Ont
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