4. Controlled diet studies ---- that saturated fat increases cholesterol levels. lere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. - PDF

lere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. 1. In England, the general public s ---- of medical advice from the government stems from the fact that, in the past, such information has often proved vastly

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lere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. 1. In England, the general public s ---- of medical advice from the government stems from the fact that, in the past, such information has often proved vastly inaccurate. 4. Controlled diet studies ---- that saturated fat increases cholesterol levels. A) prescribed B) confirmed C) disturbed D) regretted E) deduced A) approval B) inadequacy C) mistrust D) distraction E) preference 2. Many researchers now focus on poverty and poor education as explanations for ---- mortality. A) probable B) intense C) preventive D) occasional E) excess 5. The worst fires firemen have to ---- are those that emit stifling smoke and noxious gases. A) take over B) put over C) fill out D) cope with E) pull through 3. Heart disease, stroke and lung cancer ---- constitute 35 per cent of all deaths in the US. A) together B) readily C) exactly D) fairly E) well 6. The correct time to start a baby on solid food ---- its needs and readiness. A) builds up B) depends on C) cares for D) puts forward E) slows down 7. Most of the world s population ---- on natural exposure to sunlight ---- adequate vitamin D nutrition. A) relies / to maintain B) has relied / to have maintained C) used to rely / would have maintained D) will rely / having maintained E) is relying / to be maintaining 10. Foot massages ---- those who ---- balance problems. A) may have helped / are having B) will help / had C) could help / have D) have helped / would have E) would have helped / may have 8. Shanghai ---- curb pollution or its citizens ---- rapidly increasing ill health. A) needs to / have faced B) had to / had faced C) has to / will have faced D) will have to / would face E) must / will face 11. Until quite recently, no one ---- the deadly germ that causes anthrax ---- outside a living host. A) had thought / would have thrived B) thinks / is thriving C) has thought / will thrive D) would think / had thrived E) thought / could thrive 9. Any drug development effort ---- neurodegenerative disorders ---- carefully any possible side effects. A) combating / would have examined B) to combat / will have to examine 12. Bleeding after oral surgery can usually be stopped ---- keeping steady pressure ---- the surgical site for the first hour. A) for / to B) in / to C) with / up D) by / on E) from / of C) to have combated / will examine D) having combated / had examined E) to be combated / would have to examine 19 13. As regards breast changes, our definition ---- normal varies ---- age and experience. A) of / with B) for / from C) at / over D) in / for E) with / by 16. In developing countries, ---- nutritional concerns override the risk of HIV transmission, breastfeeding may still be desirable. A) where B) what C) that D) which E) whether 14. Children s appetites begin to diminish around one year, ---- the slowing of growth. A) regardless of B) in spite of C) in case of D) consistent with repairing nerve damage, glia may also be critical to learning and to forming memories. A) Contrary to B) As regards C) Just as D) As well as E) In spite of E) except for 15. Ten per cent of the population is allergic to thimerosol, ---- the health of millions of babies and children worldwide is being compromised. A) if B) so C) while D) unless E) which 18. Women are ---- likely ---- men to discuss mental health problems with their general practice physician. A) so / much B) also / as C) more / than D) too / for E) as / that 20 sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. For the purpose of diagnosis, analysis and experimentation, academic physicians tend to focus on disease at a particular point in time. But disease needs (19) ---- as a process that evolves over time through the (20) ---- of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. This view puts a premium (21) ---- understanding the complex history of a patient, and it (22) ---- that most disease cannot be tied to a (23) ---- cause. A) to have been treated B) to have treated C) to treat D) being treated E) to be treated sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz. 24. If born at 24 weeks, A) the fetus grows rapidly during the final trimester B) several hormones are involved in initiating the birth process C) the brain would begin to send impulses that regulate the functions of some organs D) the fetus has only about a 50% chance of surviving E) the average full-term baby weighs about 3,000 grams and measures about 52 centimetres A) availability B) discovery C) interaction D) compatibility E) reliability A) against B) to C) over D) towards E) on so that future encounters with the same pathogen are dealt with swiftly. A) Effective vaccines can be prepared in a number of ways B) Through immunization the body launches an immune response, and develops memory cells C) Most vaccines consist of the entire pathogen or of a protein from the pathogen D) Tetanus and botulism vaccines are made from toxins secreted by the respective pathogens E) Most persons contract measles or chickenpox only once A) conducts B) rejects C) disputes D) acknowledges E) denies A) single B) multiple C) reliable D) subsequent E) persistent until James Watson and Francis Crick proposed a model for its structure that had extraordinary explanatory power. A) Many genes encode proteins that are not enzymes B) A great deal was known about the physical and chemical properties of DNA C) DNA was not widely accepted as the genetic material D) DNA is made of two polynucleotide chains intertwined to form a double helix E) The idea that genes and enzymes are related in some way was first clearly stated in 27. When a coronary artery becomes narrowed, A) one of the main jobs of the circulation is to bring oxygen to all the cells of the body B) ischemic heart disease can develop C) arteries that branch off from the aorta conduct blood to all regions of the body D) hormones are involved in regulating blood pressure E) blood vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood are red , it picks up glucose, amino acids and other nutrients. A) As blood flows through capillaries within the wall of the intestine B) Because oxygen-rich blood is supplied to the liver by the hepatic artery C) Since the hepatic portal vein delivers nutrients to the liver D) In case the thrombus blocks a sizable branch of a coronary artery E) While liver sinuses merge to form hepatic veins that the proportion of glia to neurons increases greatly as animals move up the evolutionary ladder. A) Comparisons of brains reveal B) This hypothesis has still to be tested C) Neuroscientists are pursuing the enquiry D) The capacity for learning is being investigated E) The problem has not been adequately researched 31. The liquid protein diet, ----, caused deaths in many users. A) since people like to take supplements B) which was advocated some years ago for weight loss C) as athletes require a well-balanced diet D) that the diet is perfectly adequate E) unless there had been regular medical supervision 29. Although nitrous oxide is still in common use as a general anesthetic, A) the operating room became known as the Ether Dome B) nitrous oxide and di-ethyl ether are not the same C) ether has not taken its place D) its reliability is sometimes questioned E) the term ether was often used indiscriminately during the 19 th century 32. Studies have shown that people ---- have a lower risk of coronary heart disease. A) that had developed diabetes B) whose intake of unsaturated fats was high C) since they exercise regularly D) if there is no history of heart disease in the family E) who replace red meat with chicken and fish 22 33. Certain therapies are effective for certain disorders A) that individuals receiving therapy actually did improve B) which treatment is effective for which problem C) since one school of therapy emphasizes insight D) but are relatively ineffective for others E) as these were the untreated control-group patients sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümleye anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. 36. A striking feature of pregnancy is that blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance fall soon after conception. A) Döllenme sonrası kan basıncının ve periferal vasküler direncin düşmesi, gebeliğin diğer bir çarpıcı özelliğidir. B) Döllenmeyi takiben, kan basıncı ve periferal vasküler direncin düşmesi, gebelikle ilgili önemli bir özelliktir. C) Gebeliğin bir diğer önemli özelliği, döllenme sonucunda, kan basıncının ve periferal vasküler direncin düşmesidir. D) Gebeliğin çarpıcı bir özelliği, kan basıncı ve periferal vasküler direncin, döllenmeden hemen sonra düşmesidir. 34. It now seems that glial cells, ----, may be nearly as important as neurons are in the thinking process. E) Gebeliğin bir başka çarpıcı belirtisi, döllenme olur olmaz, kan basıncının ve periferal vasküler direncin düşmeye başlamasıdır. A) which have been overlooked for half a century B) if the evidence is quite convincing C) that they communicate among themselves D) as research into these cells was abandoned E) since this affects how the brain performs 37. Most people realize the importance of calcium for bone health, but they underestimate the importance of vitamin D, which fosters calcium absorption. A) İnsanlar kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı için önemini bilmelerine rağmen kalsiyumun emilimini kolaylaştıran D vitaminini göz ardı ederler. 35. The disease is rarely fatal, A) if it had been promptly diagnosed B) though it may result in paralysis C) unless there was a history of allergies D) since the patient responded well to the treatment E) until proper medical care could be given B) Pek çok insan kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı üzerindeki etkisinin farkındadır ama kalsiyumun emilimini güçlendiren D vitamini genellikle bilinmez. C) Kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı için önemi bilinir, ancak kalsiyumun emilimini sağlayan D vitamini önemsenmez. D) İnsanlar kalsiyumun kemik sağlığındaki önemini bilmekle beraber kalsiyumun emilimini D vitamininin kolaylaştırdığını bilmezler. E) Pek çok insan kemik sağlığı için kalsiyumun öneminin farkındadır fakat kalsiyum emilimini güçlendiren D vitamininin önemini küçümser. 23 38. Recent studies found no link between the risk of developing brain tumour and the amount of time one has spent using a mobile phone. A) Son çalışmalarda bir kişide beyin tümörü gelişmesi riskiyle, cep telefonu kullanma süresi arasındaki ilişki kanıtlanamadı. B) Beyin tümörü gelişmesiyle ilgili son çalışmalarda kişilerin cep telefonu kullanması riskli bulunmadı. C) Son çalışmalar beyin tümörü gelişmesi riskiyle, kişinin cep telefonu kullanarak geçirdiği zaman arasında bir ilişki bulmadı. D) Son araştırmalar cep telefonu kullanılarak geçirilen zamanın beyin tümörü gelişimine katkısı olmadığı sonucunu buldu. E) Kişinin beyin tümörü geliştirme riskiyle cep telefonu kullanarak geçirdiği zaman arasındaki ilişki, son araştırma sonuçlarına göre oldukça zayıftır. 40. Enzim bozukluklarını içeren yüzlerce insan hastalığına gen değişimlerinin neden olduğu anlaşılmıştır. A) Hundreds of human diseases involving enzyme defects have been found to be caused by genetic mutations. B) It has been established that genetic mutations have caused hundreds of human diseases including enzyme defects. C) Genetic mutations have been found to be the cause of hundreds of human diseases as well as enzyme defects. D) Hundred of human diseases have been found to result from genetic mutations and enzyme defects. E) As it is known, hundreds of human diseases have been caused by genetic mutations involving enzyme defects sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye anlamca en yakın İngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. 39. Her ne kadar hücreler çok farklı gibi görünse de temel özellikleri dikkate değer şekilde benzerdir. A) Cells seem to be extremely diverse, but they all have similar features. B) Although cells may appear to be very diverse, the fundamental features are remarkably similar. C) Even though cells display a great deal of variety, fundamentally, they have certain similarities. D) Cells appear to have much diversity even if fundamentally they are the same. E) Despite their great variety, cells do have fundamentally similar features. 41. Kan basıncı ölçümleri gebelik boyunca normal tutulması koşuluyla, yüksek tansiyonlu kadınlar, artmış pre-eklampsi riski taşımazlar. A) A proper control of blood pressure during pregnancy enables women with hypertension to resist any increased risk of pre-eclampsia. B) So long as blood pressure is kept within normal limits during pregnancy, women suffering from hypertension are immune from the high risk of pre-eclampsia. C) Women, who have hypertension, can overcome the increased risk of pre-eclampsia so long as their blood pressure measurements remain stable. D) Women whose blood pressure is properly controlled during pregnancy, do not suffer from hypertension and have no risk of pre-eclampsia. E) Provided blood pressure measurements are within normal limits throughout pregnancy, women with hypertension do not have the increased risk of pre-eclampsia. 24 sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek cümleyi bulunuz. 42. Opioid analgesics are very effective in controlling pain but have many side effects In addition, before a long-term use of opioid analgesics can be stopped, the dose must be gradually reduced to minimize the development of withdrawal symptoms. A) Moreover, people with severe pain shouldn t avoid opioids B) With time a person using them may need higher doses C) AIDS can cause pain as severe and unrelenting as that of cancer 44. Breast tumours are usually composed of more than one type of cancer Although scientists know about this phenomenon, it has been difficult to quantify because pathologists use differing diagnostic criteria. A) The latter is much easier to diagnose B) In some centres a single pathologist reviews all patient samples C) It is hoped that this will enhance patient care D) This is a problem when the cancers do not all respond to the same treatment E) As a result, the stage of the cancer also needs to be considered D) The sustained-release form provides relief for 8 to 12 hours E) Several types of analgesics can help alleviate pain 43. An organism must divide its energy between maintenance, repair and reproduction As a result, organisms face a tough problem: What is the best allocation of finite metabolic energy to maximize reproduction and repair? A) Actually, some organisms do have unlimited energy B) No creatures are capable of living indefinitely C) The reproductive life of an organism may be even shorter D) As an organism ages, the problems become less acute E) Even a well-fed organism has to cope with energy limitations 45. A patient with Korsakoff s syndrome reports that he spent the weekend at the beach, when in fact he was in the hospital However, he neither notices his amnesia nor questions his own story; concerning his own past he doesn t know that he doesn t know. A) His memory is impaired but he has replaced his lost history with a story B) Such sincere claims cannot be argued away C) There is no point in trying to contradict such an assertion D) Similarly, a patient with Anton s syndrome will deny his own blindness E) Actually, the syndrome is a very rare one 25 46. Although social and medical interventions have helped people live longer, none of the techniques have affected the aging process But, there is a change: there are far more 65-year-olds today than there used to be because the past century s efforts reduced early mortality. A) Fewer young people now die of infectious diseases as sanitary conditions have improved greatly B) This is because people are living longer C) A healthy 65-year-old in 1900 would be physically indistinguishable from his or her counterpart in 2000 D) Improved working conditions have also contributed, to a noticeable extent, to an increased life expectancy E) Attention to diet also plays an important role 48. Alison: - Is it really necessary to give infants so many vaccines during their first year? Pat: Alison: - Why is that? Pat: - Because once a child is a year old, many parents feel that regular visits to a doctor are no longer necessary. A) I suppose it depends on where you live. B) No. But while they are small, they do not object. C) I think it s vital. But a lot of paediatricians would disagree. D) Let s hope they don t introduce any more! E) It s not essential. But it is usually advisable sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi bulunuz. 47. Amy: - I suppose Parkinson s is on the increase because people are living so much longer. David: - It s not as simple as that. Fifty per cent of patients acquire it before they are sixty. Amy: David: - No, it s not. Environmental factors seem to play quite an important role. A) Do they really? So it s not simply a condition of old age. B) I didn t know that. Is there any cure? C) Are you sure the condition is reversible? D) Among younger patients, is surgical intervention recommended? 49. Amy: - Pat has always wanted to be a nurse and I m sure she ll make an excellent one. Lucy: - I m sure she will. But it s not an easy profession. Amy: Lucy: - Yes; there s no doubt about that. A) She says she d prefer to work in a children s hospital. B) What does her father think about it? C) At her age I wanted to be a nurse, didn t you? D) Of course it s not. But it offers a great deal of job satisfaction. E) Even so, I m sure I d find the hours quite unbearable! E) Let s hope they ll soon find new ways of treating the condition. 26 50. Paul: - Do you think Clive will agree to have this operation? Edith: - He already has agreed. We re both convinced it is the best course to take. Paul: Edith: - Reasonably good. After all he is basically a very healthy person. A) Has the surgeon discussed the risks with him? B) What are the chances of its being successful? C) Does he realize how risky it is? D) Have you thought about this seriously? E) What about getting a second opinion? 51. Mary: - Did you say your daughter was doing the interior design for a hospital? Brenda: - Yes, that s right. They now give a great deal of importance to the colour schemes and the general use of space in a hospital. Mary: Brenda: - I don t think it is. The morale of the patients has an important role to play in their recovery. A) Isn t that rather a waste of public money? B) Still, most people want to get away as soon as possible. C) Yes; I remember reading something to that effect. D) I ll be glad when they give up all those white walls, won t you? E) I ve noticed an improvement in the children s wards. 27 sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi bulunuz. 52. (I) The statistics are staggering. (II) Since 1981, an estimated 28 million people have died of AIDS. (III) Today, 42 million men, women and children are believed to be living with HIV. (IV) What is even more disturbing, 5 million new infections are occurring each year. (V) Indeed, vaccines have helped to eradicate some of the worst diseases of the 20 th century. 55. (I) Stress can affect our health by leading us to engage in types of behaviours that undermine the body s ability to fight off disease. (II) When we are feeling stressed, we often do not take proper care of ourselves. (III) Thus, stressful situations may affect immune system functioning. (IV) Students, for instance, who are taking exams, may stay up all night for several nights in a row. (V) Furthermore, they may skip meals and snack on junk food. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 53. (I) Dependence on sleep aids and anti-anxiety drugs decreases alert
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