1. Introduction. *Marcin Jarzębski, *Andrzej Nienartowicz, *Miłosz Deptuła, *Jakub W. Bubnicki **Dominik J. Domin - PDF

Ecological Questions 13/2010: 9 27 DOI: /v Past, current and potential resources of carbon and above-ground plant biomass in the landscape with heaths in some selected areas of the

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Ecological Questions 13/2010: 9 27 DOI: /v Past, current and potential resources of carbon and above-ground plant biomass in the landscape with heaths in some selected areas of the Tuchola Forest *Marcin Jarzębski, *Andrzej Nienartowicz, *Miłosz Deptuła, *Jakub W. Bubnicki **Dominik J. Domin * Laboratory of Ecological Processes Modelling, Institute of Ecology and Environment Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, Toruń, Poland, ** Departament of Urban and Recreation Studies, Institute of Geography, Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, Toruń, Poland, Abstract. Applying the GIS technologies, historical and contemporary cartographic materials, data coming from the forest inventory and indices of biomass state, the total biomass and biomass for individual layers of forest and non-forest phytocoenoses, the real and potential biomass was assessed, as well as current and potential carbon resources in that biomass in four nature objects. The investigated objects were characterized by different spatial size, as well as by different intensity of human economic activities and different status of nature conservation. Those were: the Tuchola Forest National Park, the Zaborski Landscape Park, as well as the areas of the so-called (forest) demesne of Zabory and the (field) demesne of Tuchola in the former District (Starosty) of Tuchola. In the case of both demesnes, the biomass state was assessed, as well as the extent of its displacement caused by economic human activities, both nowadays and in the past, i.e. for the year 1796 and The smallest difference in the state of potential and actual biomass was recorded in the National Park. The loss here amounted to 28.44%. The biggest differences occurred in the field demesne in The loss here reached 76.47%. It was also observed that nowadays the loss slightly decreased, reaching the level of 73.97%. In the demesne of Zabory, the increase of biomass state was considerably higher during the discussed period. In 1796, when heaths and poor xerothermic meadows covered relatively large areas and were exploited as sheep s grazing lands, the biomass loss amounted here to 69.32% and in 2008 to 51.87%. The increase of biomass state and at the same time the reduction in biomass losses, calculated in relation to the potential, was brought here about mainly by establishing the Prussian Forest Inspectorate Zwangshof in 1890 and by afforestation of agricultural and fallow lands, which was done by Polish forest inspectorates in the 20th century, particularly during several years after the 2nd World War. Key words: carbon in plant biomass, deforestation, forest inventory, GIS, heathlands, historical maps, land use, landscape structure, natural vegetation, potential vegetation map, protected areas, reforestation. 1. Introduction Specific landscape structure, as a consequence of human impact on the nature, becomes particularly evident on higher levels of biosphere organization. In the hierarchical system of biosphere organization, a landscape defined also as a physiocoenosis is a mosaic of ecosystems. According to the definition by Ryszkowski (1984), this is the level of biosphere organization, at which there is a possibility to optimize the routes of energy flow and matter circulation through controlling the structure and spatial distribution of ecosystems. In the past, this possibility was 10 Marcin Jarzębski, Andrzej Nienartowicz, Miłosz Deptuła, Jakub W. Bubnicki, Dominik J. Domin used to a different extent in order to prevent unfavourable landscape processes triggered by man. The main parameter determining the intensity of human activities in the landscape is the cultural energy consumption by a local community, expressed in physical units of energy per unit of surface area. Whereas, vegetation is the main element of ecosystems structure, and at the same time of the landscape, which depending on natural habitat factors and anthropogenic interactions differentiates into particular types of phytocoenoses, formed by different combinations of tree, shrub, herbaceous and low shrub species, as well as species of bryophytes and lichens. Within one habitat, as a consequence of intentional or unintentional human activity, different types of phytocoenoses may occur, e.g. in the habitat of fresh pine forest, both patches of old forest and logging areas can be observed, as well as developmental phases of forest spontaneously or artificially regenerating in the silviculture process controlled by a forester. Also non-forest communities may occur, such as heaths, dunes, arable fields and meadows, indicating that landscape transformations may also include changes in vegetation formations from forest to non-forest ones. The information about the structure of previous landscape states comes, among others, from historical cartographic materials. Whereas, maps of potential vegetation could be used as the reference point for the evaluation of the past and current states of the landscape. Apart from species composition and quantitative relationships between species, the element of phytocoenoses structure that influences their functioning is the amount of plant biomass produced in the process defined as primary production. Human influence on the size of primary production and the stock of plant biomass accumulated in the landscape ensues mainly through two processes displacement of vegetation, which results from replacing the plants by elements of technical and social infrastructure, such as construction of housing developments, towns or roads connecting those settlement units, as well as technological changes in plant production and annual crop acquisition, i.e. food, fodder for farm animals, fuel, building timber, etc. The course of those processes and their influence on carbon flows in natural and socio-economic subsystems, exerted over a long time, are presented by more and more numerous papers within the scope of ecology and historical geography (Johnson & Earle 1987; Crumley 1993; Williams 2000; Schandl & Schulz 2002; Gingrich et al. 2007; Erb et al. 2008). In the ecology, the differences between potential and actual net primary production, together with the yield obtained in each year, are defined as an index of human appropriation of net primary production, that is HANPP. This term was introduced by Vitousek et al. (1986, 1997) and then developed by Helmut Haberl, who, together with collaborators, evaluated this parameter for the whole area of contemporary Austria (Haberl & Geissler 2000; Haberl et al. 2001, 2002, 2007a, b; Erb et al. 2007). According to their assessment, at present this index reaches 22 39% at the global scale. Until now, the appropriation of primary production has not been assessed for Polish territories, both for contemporary states and for past developmental phases of our landscapes. Apart from changes in plant biomass produced every year, i.e. primary production, the contemporary ecology also intensively investigates the loss or increase of living plant biomass accumulated over many years. This value, defined as the stock of plant biomass (standing crops), is estimated at the level of ecosystems, landscapes or a whole country. The research has been carried out on the influence exerted by changes in the accumulated plant biomass and carbon contained therein on the enhancement or mitigation of the so-called greenhouse effect, as well as the related climatic changes and biodiversity in individual regions of the world. The above-ground standing crop and the aboveground carbon stocks of terrestrial plant communities in Austria were calculated by Haberl et al. (2001), Weisz et al. (2001) and Erb (2004). The paper by Titlyanova and Kosykh (2000) is an example of assessments based both on estimations of primary production and plant biomass stock in a large region a forest-steppe zone in Western Siberia. In Poland, the Tuchola Forest is one of the investigation areas where relationships between cultural metabolism and the landscape structure are studied, as well as between the primary production size, the state of plant biomass and the amount of carbon accumulated therein. The magnitude of cultural metabolism in the Laska forest district included within the Forest Division of Przymuszewo and the Zaborski Landscape Park was studied by Nienartowicz (1992, 1996). Whereas, Barcikowski and Loro (1993) did the evaluation of losses in primary production within the district of Laska, resulting from clear felling. Based on the data on primary production and the biomass state obtained from the latter study, Nienartowicz and Barcikowski (1996) evaluated the extent of ecological stability in the forest district Laska, through measuring the so-called biophysical capital and the negentropic cost according to the method proposed by Giampietro and Pimentel (1991), as well as Giampietro et al. (1992). Miscellaneous methods of ecological energetics and the results of their applications in the analysis of the whole Przymuszewo Forest Division and the Promotional Forest Complex Tuchola Forest, which comprises five other forest divisions, was presented by Nienartowicz (1999, 2002). The author together with a group of associates (Nienartowicz 1996; Nienartowicz et al. 2003) also carried out multifaceted analysis of biological and cultural metabolism in the forest village of Asmus located within the forest district of Laska. Moreover, Nienartowicz et al. (1998, 2002) also completed the evaluation Past, current and potential resources of carbon and above-ground plant biomass in the landscape with heaths of structural changes in the landscape, the state of plant biomass and the level of organic carbon accumulated in this biomass as a consequence of afforestation in one of the landed estates with the area of ca. 612 ha, during the development of the Prussian Forest Inspectorate Zwangshof in the latter half of the 19th century. In the aforementioned papers, the comparison was performed between the conditions at the end of the 20th century and before the development of the Prussian forest economic unit, i.e. before Whereas Deptuła (2006) evaluated the level of carbon accumulation at a larger spatial scale, namely in the territory (ca km 11 km) reproduced on one sheet of the Prussian topographic map Sec. Rollbick at the scale of 1 : 25,000 according to the state from Further states of temporal series worked out by this author comprise the years of 1926, 1953, 1966, 1976 and Description of relationships between the intensity of human activities expressed by cultural metabolism and the landscape structure defined on the basis of the satellite image Landsat ETM+ at the level of the whole Tuchola Forest region was presented by Nienartowicz and Domin (2007). Nienartowicz et al. (2008) also presented the cultural metabolism and the landscape structure from the historical aspect in the territory of the so-called demesne of Zabory included in the Tuchola district authority. The present paper deals with the evaluation of plant biomass losses as a consequence of the influence of the production-cultural subsystem on the nature within few areas of the Tuchola Forest. Those are areas of the Tuchola Forest National Park, as well as the whole area of the Zaborski Landscape Park. Those areas of high nature conservation status may constitute the reference point for the evaluation of the natural state (naturalness) of areas where intensity of human impact on the nature is much higher. Among areas of this type, there were areas included in the past (the 15th 18th century) within two different, in respect of land use, economic units of the Tuchola district authority, i.e. the (forest) demesne of Zabory and the (field) demesne of Tuchola. In this paper, using cartographic sources and forest databases, as well as applying the GIS technology, losses in plant biomass were compared according to the state from 1796 and The study area The Tuchola Forest National Park was created in It is situated in the Pomerania province (Fig. 1), to the north of the town of Chojnice and to the east of Lake Charzykowskie. Land relief of the park was developed during the last Baltic glaciation (the Pomeranian stadial). The dominating geomorphological form are sandy outwash plains of the Brda River, situated at the longitude of m asl, inclined towards the south and covered with extensive Figure 1. Location of the Tuchola Forest National Park and the Zaborski Landscape Park pine forests. Struga Siedmiu Jezior (the Stream of Seven Lakes) is the main watercourse in the Park, crossing the Park along the line East West and flowing into Lake Charzykowskie. Also the Brda River flows through this lake, being the main river of the whole Tuchola Forest region. The area of the park amounts to 4, ha, most of which is covered by forests (82.72%), as well as lakes and rivers (11.72%). Only a small part of the area is covered with lines of forest surface division, as well as arable fields, meadows and housing estate areas (6.36, 5.06 and 3.94% respectively). Fresh pine forest is the dominating forest habitat type in the National Park (90.33% of the afforested forest area, which amounts to 3, ha). A small part of the forest area is covered with habitats of dry (0.18%) and humid pine forests (0.01%), as well as mixed coniferous forests (7.10%), mixed forests (2.04%) and deciduous forests (0.34%). Scots pine evidently dominates in the tree stand. Pine tree stands make up as much as 96.81% of the forest area. Small areas are covered with birch (1.73%), spruce (0.68%), alder (0.53%), oak (0.13%), larch (0.06%) and poplar (0.06%) tree stands. As far as the age structure is concerned, forest stands of the following age classes cover the largest areas: the third (26.15%), the second (18.67%) and the fifth class (18.34%). Forest stands in the youngest age class (1 20 years old) cover 5.09% of the forest area and forest stands of over 100 years old 19.11% (i.e ha). 12 Marcin Jarzębski, Andrzej Nienartowicz, Miłosz Deptuła, Jakub W. Bubnicki, Dominik J. Domin Within the Park s area, 10 areas with strict nature conservation policy were delimited, which altogether cover ha, i.e. 7.04% of its total area (www.park.borytucholskie.info). Over the area of 4, ha (91.26%), partial nature conservation is being implemented, both non-invasive (preservative), as well as active one. The remaining part of the Park, that is ha (1.71%) includes areas of landscape conservation. In the areas of strict nature conservation, there are many lakes, including lobelia lakes, which are great peculiarities of the Tuchola Forest National Park. Also wetlands and peat bogs, surrounded by natural forest communities, cover a significant area here. The dominating forests in the Tuchola Forest National Park constitute an efficient buffer for lakes, wetlands and peat bogs, as well as they sustain high species diversity over the whole area. Altogether there are 640 species of vascular plants in the Tuchola Forest National Park, including more than 70 rare species, rare and protected species (www.park.borytucholskie.info). Also, the occurrence of 155 species of mosses and 26 species of liverworts was confirmed. The list of lichens comprises 231 species, including 20 primaeval-forest relics and 60 legally protected species. So far 315 species of macroscopic fungi were described. Also fauna of invertebrates is rich. Within particular taxonomic groups of vertebrates, the following statistics was confirmed: 20 fish species, 9 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 100 species of birds, including 87 species of breeding avifauna. Among 37 species of mammals, beaver, boar, roe deer and deer have the strongest direct effect on the state of living plant biomass (www.park.borytucholskie.info). The Zaborski Landscape Park is situated around the Tuchola Forest National Park. It was created in 1990 (www. zaborypark.eco.pl). The Tuchola Forest National Park was included within the Landscape Park in Today, some of the areas of the Landscape Park constitute a buffer zone of the Tuchola Forest National Park. The Zaborski Landscape Park is situated within the territory of two communes, Brusy and Chojnice. Its area amounts to 34,026 ha. Forests dominate in the land use structure. They cover 72.17% of its area, whereas division lines and roads only 6.36%. Forest areas are mainly included in two forest divisions Rytel and Przymuszewo. Only a small part of state forests belongs to the Forest Division of Czersk. All aforementioned forest divisions are under the authority of the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Toruń. Only a small part of the forest area is private. Within the forest area of the Zaborski Landscape Park, similarly like in the Tuchola Forest National Park, fresh pine forest is the dominating habitat type. Those habitats, developed on extensive outwash plains, are overgrown by the association Leucobryo-Pinetum. Scots pine dominates in the species structure of tree stands, whereas the third class dominates in the age structure of tree stands. A considerable part of the Landscape Park, particularly its northern area is covered with secondary pine forests, reconstructed in heathlands, poor grazing lands and degraded farmlands. Those pine forests are characterized by lower habitat fertility and due to their lower values of NDVI, they are clearly distinguishable in satellite images (Kunz et al. 2000). They are included within the syntaxa of Cladonio- Pinetum and Leucobryo-Pinetum callunetosum. Deciduous forests cover a much smaller area. Among them, alder forests dominate, classified as associations of Ribeso nigri- Alnetum and Sphagno squarrosi-alnetum from the class Alnetea glutinosae, as well as Circaeo-Alnetum from the class Querco-Fagetea. They mainly cover valleys of the rivers Zbrzyca, Kulawa and Kłonecznica situated within the drainage basin of the Brda River. On hillsides of lake channels, small areas of mixed lime-oak-hornbeam forests occur: Galio sylvatici-carpinetum and beech forests Luzulo pilosae-fagetum. A syntaxonomic rank of many forest communities is difficult to define, as they developed due to pine introduction into habitats of mixed and deciduous forests by Prussian foresters in the 19th century. In the Zaborski Landscape Park, similarly like in the Tuchola Forest National Park, apart from forests, a significant part of the area is taken by lakes and rivers. The total area of aquatic ecosystems amounts to 3, ha, which makes up 11.72% of the Landscape Park area. Arable fields cover 5.06% of the Park s area, meadows and grazing lands 3.94%, and housing estate areas 0.75%. Although in the past, ecosystems in the Landscape Park, particularly the terrestrial ones, were quite intensely exploited, many of them preserved natural character. In order to protect them, five nature reserves were created here, one floristic-aquatic reserve, three peat-bog reserves and one fauna reserve (www.zaborypark.eco.pl). Also projects of four further nature reserves were drawn up. In the past, the areas of the Tuchola Forest National Park and the Zaborski Landscape Park were included in the so-called demesne of Zabory, also called the demesne of Kosobudy. The course of boundaries of all three units is presented in Figure 2. The detailed data on the economic history of the Zabory demesne is provided in the paper by Zofia Kratochwil (1981). According to this author, settlement in the Zabory Region began in the 8th century. In the 8th century, the area was controlled by Pomeranians. Since 1308, the area was included in the Teutonic State, within which it constituted an economic unit of the Tuchola Teutonic Commander. In , the area as the Zabory demesne, together with the Tuchola demesne, also called the field demesne, formed the Tuchola starosty. After the first partition of Poland, both demesnes were included in Prusy as a part of the Kwidzyn District. Today,
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